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Ceramics : Mastering the Craft,9780801979910

Ceramics : Mastering the Craft

by
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 10/1/1990
Publisher(s): F&W-PUB

Summary

In Ceramics: Mastering the Craft, Richard Zakin has written a comprehensive handbook for everyone interested in working in ceramics. He offers practical advice on buying and formulating clays, choosing and applying glazes, firing clay bodies, and setting up a ceramics studio.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. 8
Introductionp. 10
Understanding Ceramic Materialsp. 11
The Basic Building Blocksp. 12
Elements Found in Ceramic Materialsp. 12
Compounds Used in Ceramicsp. 12
Claysp. 14
Feldsparsp. 14
Fritsp. 14
Gound Silica (Flint)p. 15
Silica/Melter Materialsp. 15
Glaze and Body Stainsp. 15
Toxic Materialsp. 15
Eutecticsp. 15
Purchasing Ceramic Materialsp. 15
Ceramic Recipesp. 16
Ceramic Colorp. 17
The Physics of Ceramic Colorp. 17
Colorants Found in Naturep. 17
Ceramic Stainsp. 17
Colors Found in Stainsp. 20
Using Stains in Ceramic Recipesp. 20
A Note on Toxicityp. 21
Clay Bodies: Making and Buyingp. 23
Important Attributes of Clay Bodiesp. 23
Plasticityp. 23
Working Strengthp. 23
Clay Body Colorp. 24
Maturityp. 24
Clay Body Absorptionp. 24
Clay Body Texturep. 24
Resistance to Warpingp. 24
Intended Usep. 24
Materials Used in Clay Bodiesp. 24
Claysp. 24
Nonclay Materialsp. 24
Silicap. 24
Silicatesp. 24
Feldsparsp. 25
Fritsp. 25
Fluxing Materialsp. 25
Fillersp. 25
Types of Silica and Their Effect on Clay Bodiesp. 26
Materials in Clay Body Recipesp. 26
Claysp. 26
Nonclay Materialsp. 26
Clay Body Typesp. 26
Clay Body Types in Common Usep. 27
Earthenware Bodiesp. 27
Stoneware Bodiesp. 30
High-Fire Sculpture Bodiesp. 30
Porcelain Bodiesp. 32
Porcelainous Bodiesp. 33
Unconventional Clay Bodiesp. 34
Self-Glazing Clay Bodiesp. 34
Low-Clay Content Bodiesp. 34
Colored Clay Bodiesp. 34
Low-Clay Content Colored Clay Bodiesp. 36
Highly Active Fluxes in Clay Bodiesp. 36
Colored Grog in Clay Bodiesp. 38
Making, Purchasing, and Testing Clay Bodiesp. 38
Purchasing Clay Bodiesp. 39
Making a Teapot in Colored Clayp. 40
Making Clay Bodiesp. 42
Material Substitutions in Clay Bodiesp. 42
Testing Clay Bodiesp. 43
Testing for Working Strengthp. 43
Testing for Plasticityp. 43
Testing for Shrinkagep. 43
Testing for Warpingp. 43
Testing Clay Body Absorptionp. 44
Ceramic Forms: Vessels, Sculpture, and Wall Piecesp. 45
Vessel Formsp. 45
Utilitarian Vesselsp. 45
Nonutilitarian Vesselsp. 49
Sculpturep. 50
Imageryp. 52
Ceramic Wall Piecesp. 62
Ceramic Slab Constructionp. 68
Robert Harrisonp. 70
Creating Form in Clayp. 72
Preparing the Clay for Workp. 72
Seasoning the Clay Bodyp. 72
Wedgingp. 72
Cuttingp. 73
Ceramic Forming Methodsp. 73
Pinch Formingp. 73
Building a Small Pinch Formp. 74
Building a Large Pinch Formp. 74
Solid Formingp. 74
Piercing a Solid Formp. 76
Hollowing a Solid Block of Clayp. 76
Slab Formingp. 76
Making a Ceramic Cylindrical Formp. 77
Joinsp. 78
Working With the Cylinderp. 78
Making a Three-Sided Formp. 79
Coil Buildingp. 81
Coil Formingp. 81
Throwing on the Potter's Wheelp. 81
The Processp. 82
Throwing on the Wheelp. 84
Centeringp. 86
Opening Up the Formp. 86
Pullingp. 86
Thrown and Altered Formsp. 86
"Ovalizing" a Thrown Clylinderp. 87
Matrix Formingp. 88
Drape Formingp. 88
Hand Forming in a Press Moldp. 90
Creating a Mold-Formed Vesselp. 92
Using a Plywood Drape Form to Create a Platep. 94
Forming a U-Shaped Potp. 94
Extruder Formingp. 94
Mold Formingp. 95
Press Mold Formingp. 95
Slipcast Formingp. 95
Ram Press Formingp. 95
Slip Formingp. 95
Making the Moldp. 96
Mixing Plasterp. 96
Making a Simple One-Piece Moldp. 96
Making a Simple Two-Piece Moldp. 96
Casting Slipp. 98
Using the Mold to Make a Piecep. 98
Experiments in Form Creationp. 99
Modular Formsp. 101
Mixed Mediap. 101
Combining Metal and Clay in the Firep. 101
Using Melting to Create Formp. 101
Clay Imageryp. 102
Sprigged Imageryp. 102
Applying Sprigged Imageryp. 102
Carved and Engraved Imageryp. 106
Carving an Image in a Ceramic Formp. 106
Stamped or Pressed Imageryp. 108
Using Stamped Imagery on a Slab Formp. 108
Press Molded Imageryp. 108
Making an Applied Press Mold Elementp. 108
Sandblastingp. 108
Slip Trailingp. 108
Using a Flexible Slip Trailerp. 108
Ceramic Surfacesp. 110
Introductionp. 110
Clay Surfacesp. 110
Applied Surfacesp. 110
Nonvitreous Surfacesp. 112
Washesp. 112
Finishing a Piece With Glazes and Washesp. 112
Slip and Engobesp. 113
Applying Glazes Over Nonvitreous Surfacesp. 115
Finishing a Piece Using Engraved Slip Imagery Covered by a Clear Glazep. 115
Vitreous Engobesp. 117
Vitreous Engobe Recipes: Cones 04/03p. 117
Problems Posed by Slips and Engobesp. 117
Vitreous Engobesp. 120
Gritty Slips and Engobesp. 122
Terra Sigillatasp. 122
Deflocculant Amountsp. 122
Terra Sigillatasp. 123
Applicationp. 124
Using Glazes and Terra Sigillatas on the Same Piecep. 124
Using Terra Sigillatas as Underglazesp. 124
Glazesp. 125
Introductionp. 125
The Influence of Firing Temperaturep. 125
Cone 04p. 126
Mixing Cone 04 in the Studiop. 126
What to Look for in Cone 04 Recipesp. 128
Cone 02p. 128
What to Look for in Cone 02 Recipesp. 128
Cone 3p. 128
What to Look for in Cone 3 Recipesp. 130
Cone 6p. 130
What to Look for in Cone 6 Recipesp. 130
Commercially Prepared Cone 6 Glazesp. 130
Cone 9p. 130
What to Look for in Cone 9 Recipesp. 130
Cone 9 Glaze Typesp. 130
Glaze Recipe Typesp. 131
Glazes Classified by the Amount of Silica, Alumina, or Modifiers in the Recipep. 131
Balanced Recipesp. 131
High-Silica Recipesp. 131
High-Alumina Recipesp. 131
Recipes High in Modifying Materialsp. 131
Glazes Identified by the Influence of a Materialp. 131
Wood Ashp. 131
Sources of Wood Ashp. 132
Appropriate Work Strategies for Wood Ashp. 134
A Wood Ash Testing Programp. 134
Recipes That Contain Dark Claysp. 134
A Comparison of a Dark and a White Clayp. 134
Sodium and Potassium Glazesp. 135
Boron Glazesp. 135
Titanium Glazesp. 135
High Titanium Flowing Mat Glazesp. 135
Glazes Containing Opacifiersp. 135
High-Clay Recipesp. 136
Spodumene Glazesp. 136
Zinc Glazesp. 136
Lead Glazesp. 136
Substitution Strategies for Lead in Glazesp. 136
Barium Glazesp. 136
Dangers for the Potterp. 136
Substitution Strategies for Barium Glazesp. 136
Calcium/Magnesium Glazesp. 137
Copper Redsp. 138
Strontium Glazesp. 138
High Zirconium Glazesp. 138
Glazes Classified by Appearancep. 139
Transparent Glazesp. 139
Transparent Mat Glazesp. 139
Majolicap. 139
Luster Glazesp. 142
Visually Textured Glazesp. 142
Dry, Highly Textured Glaze Surfacesp. 144
Industrial (Smooth Surfaced) Glazesp. 144
Low Viscosity Glazesp. 144
Glazes Classified by Intended Use or Purposep. 146
Utilitarian Glazesp. 146
Glazes for Outdoor Usep. 146
Glazes for Porcelain Bodiesp. 147
Glaze/Firing Combinationsp. 148
Crystal Glazesp. 148
Rakup. 148
Safety/Toxicity Problems Associated With Rakup. 150
How I Work With Rakup. 151
Glaze Making and Testingp. 154
Glaze Makingp. 154
Glaze Testingp. 155
Glaze Applicationp. 156
Application Methodsp. 156
Dippingp. 156
Splash and Pourp. 157
Sprayingp. 157
Brushingp. 157
Complex Application Strategiesp. 157
Intaglio Glazingp. 157
Painted Imageryp. 159
Using a Brush to Apply a Textured Surfacep. 159
A Multiple-Layer Glaze Strategyp. 160
Combining Stamped, Sprigged, or Carved Imagery and Glazesp. 160
"Tzu Chou" Imageryp. 163
Combining Engraving and Glazingp. 163
A Sample Strategy for Combining Carving and Glazingp. 165
Combining Terra Sigillata and Glaze Applicationsp. 168
Firing at Multiple Temperaturesp. 169
Testing a Glaze Application Strategyp. 169
For Hand-Built Workp. 170
For Wheel-Formed Workp. 172
Kilns and Kiln Designsp. 173
Kiln Atmospherep. 173
Reduction Firingp. 173
Flashingp. 174
Low-Fire Reductionp. 174
A Sawdust Firingp. 175
Making a Sawdust Kilnp. 176
Firing a Piece in the Sawdust Firep. 176
The Pottery of African Village Pottersp. 176
Oxidation Firingp. 176
Fuel-Burning Kilnsp. 176
The Wood Kilnp. 177
Oil and Gas as Fuelsp. 180
Oil and Gas Kiln Designp. 180
The Salt Kilnp. 180
Toxic Side Effects of the Salt Firep. 181
Soda Firingp. 181
Electric Kilnsp. 183
Purchasing a Commercially Made Electric Kilnp. 184
Small Test Kilnsp. 185
Kiln Loadingp. 187
Kiln Furniture - Kiln Shelves and Postsp. 187
Loadingp. 187
Conesp. 188
Cone Numberingp. 188
Cone Chartp. 188
Charting the Gap Between Commonly Used Firing Temperaturesp. 189
Sighting the Conep. 189
Placing the Cone in an Electric Kilnp. 189
Placing the Cone in a Fuel-Burning Kilnp. 189
Kiln Sittersp. 189
Pyrometersp. 189
Computer-Aided Firingp. 189
Kiln Firingp. 190
The Pace of Firingp. 190
Cooling the Kilnp. 190
The Bisque Firingp. 190
A Day-Long Bisque Firingp. 191
A Two-Day Bisque Firingp. 191
The Final Firep. 191
A Day-Long Final Firingp. 191
A Two-Day Glaze Firingp. 192
Cooling an Electric Kilnp. 192
Cooling an Electric Kiln With a Kiln Sitterp. 192
Opening the Kilnp. 192
Controlling the Atmosphere Inside a Fuel-Burning Kilnp. 192
Flashingp. 192
A Typical Gas Kiln Cone 9 Reduction Final Firingp. 193
Controlling Cooling in a Gas-Fired Reducing Kilnp. 193
Multiple Firingsp. 193
The Kiln in the Imagination of the Ceramistp. 193
Sculpturkiln - The House of Walesp. 194
Louis Katzp. 196
An Overview of Ceramic Historyp. 199
Asiap. 199
Chinap. 199
Japanp. 202
Koreap. 204
The Middle Eastp. 205
Europep. 205
Ceramics in the Roman Empirep. 206
The Development of Porcelain in Europep. 206
Englandp. 208
Roman and Medieval Pottery in Englandp. 208
Staffordshire Warep. 209
Africap. 209
Pre-Columbian Americap. 210
The American Southwestp. 212
Anasazi Potteryp. 212
North America Since Columbusp. 213
Contemporary Ceramics in the U.S. and Canadap. 214
Analysis in Ceramicsp. 218
Analyzing the Oxides in Ceramic Recipesp. 218
The Analysis Formatp. 218
Glaze Oxides Categorized by Oxide Structurep. 219
Percent by Weight Analysisp. 219
New Developmentsp. 220
Interpreting and Using Molecular Analysis Figuresp. 220
Glaze Building Recommendationsp. 221
For Molecular Analysis Systemsp. 221
Limit Formulas for Percentage Systemsp. 221
Materials-Based Creation and Evaluation of Ceramic Recipesp. 222
General Guidelines for Glazes of Any Firing Temperaturep. 222
Clays Useful in Glazesp. 222
Feldsparsp. 223
Fritsp. 223
Talc and Wollastonitep. 223
Ground Silica or Flintp. 223
Materials That Contain No Silica or Aluminap. 223
Guidelines for Specific Firing Temperaturesp. 223
Cone 04p. 223
Cone 02p. 223
Cone 3p. 224
Cone 6p. 224
Cone 9p. 224
How the System is Usedp. 224
Interpreting a Glaze Recipep. 224
Adapting a Glaze - Materials Substitutionsp. 225
Developing a New Glaze Recipep. 225
Combining Materials-Based and Molecular Analysis Approachesp. 225
Other Analysis Strategiesp. 225
Using Database Tools to Analyze the Impact of Materials and Oxides in Recipesp. 226
Sorting Recipe Datap. 226
Filteringp. 226
Image Creation Analysisp. 226
Visual Material: The Image Creation Diagramp. 227
Metric and U.S. Customary Systems of Measurementp. 227
Conversion Chartsp. 228
In the Studiop. 229
The Work Spacep. 229
Studio Equipmentp. 229
Basic Tools and Furnishingsp. 229
Economy Class - An Inexpensive Studiop. 229
Small Tools for General Usep. 229
Useful Small Tools for the Hand Builderp. 230
Tools for Throwingp. 230
Tools for Glaze Formulation and Applicationp. 230
Tools for Testing Ceramic Formulationsp. 230
The Potter's Wheelp. 230
Slab Rollersp. 231
Ceramic Scalesp. 231
Sprayersp. 231
External Mix Sprayersp. 232
Internal Mix Sprayersp. 232
Compressorsp. 232
Atomizer Sprayersp. 232
Safe Practice for the Ceramistp. 233
Toxicityp. 233
Substitutes for Toxic Materialsp. 233
Silica-Containing Materialsp. 233
Cleaning Strategiesp. 234
Safety Equipmentp. 234
Respiratorsp. 234
Disposable Safety Garmentsp. 234
Procedures for Safely Preparing Ceramic Recipesp. 234
Preparing and Forming Clay Bodiesp. 234
Preparing and Applying Glazesp. 235
Bench Grindersp. 235
Procedures for Safe Kiln Firingp. 235
Viewing the Kiln Interior During Firingp. 235
Procedures for Insuring That Fired Pieces Are Safe to Usep. 235
Ceramic Recipesp. 236
Cone 04 Recipesp. 236
Clay Bodiesp. 236
Glazesp. 236
Cone 02 Recipesp. 237
Clay Bodiesp. 237
Glazesp. 238
Cone 3 Recipesp. 239
Clay Bodiesp. 239
Glazesp. 239
Cone 6 Recipesp. 240
Clay Bodiesp. 240
Glazesp. 240
Cone 9 Recipesp. 242
Clay Bodiesp. 242
Glazesp. 243
Glossaryp. 244
Annotated Bibliographyp. 249
Indexp. 251
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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