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Discourses on Livy,9780226500362

Discourses on Livy

by ; ;
Edition: Reprint
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 1/28/1998
Publisher(s): Univ of Chicago Pr
Availability: This title is currently not available.


Discourses on Livyis the founding document of modern republicanism, and Harvey C. Mansfield and Nathan Tarcov have provided the definitive English translation of this classic work. Faithful to the original Italian text, properly attentive to Machiavelli's idiom and subtlety of thought, it is eminently readable. With a substantial introduction, extensive explanatory notes, a glossary of key words, and an annotated index, the Discoursesreveals Machiavelli's radical vision of a new science of politics, a vision of "new modes and orders" that continue to shape the modern ethos. "[Machiavelli] found in Livy the means to inspire scholars for five centuries. Within the Discourses, often hidden and sometimes unintended by their author, lie the seeds of modern political thought. . . . [Mansfield and Tarcov's] translation is careful and idiomatic."Peter Stothard, The Times"Translated with painstaking accuracybut also great readability."Weekly Standard"A model of contemporary scholarship and a brave effort at Machiavelli translation that allows the great Florentine to speak in his own voice."Choice

Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations
Introduction xvii
Suggested Readings xlv
A Note on the Translation xlix
Translators' Acknowledgments liii
Dedicatory Letter 3(2)
First Book
What Have Been Universally the Beginnings of Any City Whatever, and What Was That of Rome
Of How Many Species Are Republics, and Which Was the Roman Republic
What Accidents Made the Tribunes of the Plebs Be Created in Rome, Which Made the Republic More Perfect
That the Disunion of the Plebs and the Roman Senate Made That Republic Free and Powerful
Where the Guard of Freedom May Be Settled More Securely, in the People or in the Great; and Which Has Greater Cause for Tumult, He Who Wishes to Acquire or He Who Wishes to Maintain
Whether a State Could Have Been Ordered in Rome That Would Have Taken Away the Enmities between the People and the Senate
How Far Accusations May Be Necessary in a Republic to Maintain It in Freedom
As Much As Accusations Are Useful to Republics, So Much Are Calumnies Pernicious
That It Is Necessary to Be Alone If One Wishes to Order a Republic Anew or to Reform It Altogether outside Its Ancient Orders
As Much As the Founders of a Republic and of a Kingdom Are Praiseworthy, So Much Those of a Tyranny Are Worthy of Reproach
Of the Religion of the Romans
Of How Much Importance It Is to Take Account of Religion, and How Italy, for Lacking It by Means of the Roman Church, Has Been Ruined
How the Romans Made Religion Serve to Reorder the City and to Carry Out Their Enterprises and to Stop Tumults
The Romans Interpreted the Auspices according to Necessity, and with Prudence Made a Show of Observing Religion When Forced Not to Observe It; and If Anyone Rashly Disdained It, They Punished Him
The Samnites, as an Extreme Remedy for the Things Afflicting Them, Had Recourse to Religion
A People Used to Living under a Prince Maintains Its Freedom with Difficulty, If by Some Accident It Becomes Free
Having Come to Freedom, a Corrupt People Can with the Greatest Difficulty Maintain Itself Free
In What Mode a Free State, If There Is One, Can Be Maintained in Corrupt Cities; or, If There Is Not, in What Mode to Order It
After an Excellent Prince a Weak Prince Can Maintain Himself, but after a Weak One No Kingdom Can Be Maintained by Another Weak One
Two Virtuous Princes in Succession Produce Great Effects; and That Well-Ordered Republics Have of Necessity Virtuous Successions, and So Their Acquisitions and Increases Are Great
How Much Blame That Prince and That Republic Merit That Lack Their Own Arms
What Is to Be Noted in the Case of the Three Roman Horatii and the Three Alban Curiatii
That One Should Not Put All One's Fortune in Danger, and Not All One's Forces; and Because of This, the Guarding of Passes Is Often Harmful
Well-Ordered Republics Institute Rewards and Punishments for Their Citizens and Never Counterbalance One with the Other
He Who Wishes to Reform an Antiquated State in a Free City May Retain at Least the Shadow of Its Ancient Modes
A New Prince Should Make Everything New in a City or Province Taken by Him
Very Rarely Do Men Know How to Be Altogether Wicked or Altogether Good
For What Cause the Romans Were Less Ungrateful toward Their Citizens Than the Athenians
Which Is More Ungrateful, a People or a Prince
Which Modes a Prince or a Republic Should Use So As to Avoid the Vice of Ingratitude; and Which a Captain or a Citizen Should Use So As Not to Be Crushed by It
That the Roman Captains Were Never Extraordinarily Punished for an Error Committed; nor Were They Ever Punished When Harm Resulted to the Republic through Their Ignorance or through Bad Policies Adopted by Them
A Republic or a Prince Should Not Defer Benefiting Men in Their Necessities
When an Inconvenience Has Growth Either in a State or against a State, the More Salutary Policy Is to Temporize with It Rather Than to Strike at It
The Dictatorial Authority Did Good, and Not Harm, to the Roman Republic; and That the Authorities Citizens Take for Themselves, Not Those Given Them by Free Votes, Are Pernicious to Civil Life
The Cause Why the Creation of the Decemvirate in Rome Was Hurtful to the Freedom of That Republic, Notwithstanding That It Was Created by Public and Free Votes
Citizens Who Have Had Greater Honors Should Not Disdain Lesser Ones
What Scandals the Agrarian Law Gave Birth to in Rome; and That to Make a Law in a Republic That Looks Very Far Back and Is against an Ancient Custom of the City Is Most Scandalous
Weak Republics Are Hardly Resolute and Do Not Know How to Decide; and If They Ever Take Up Any Policy, It Arises More from Necessity Than from Choice
In Diverse Peoples the Same Accidents May Often Be Seen
The Creation of the Decemvirate in Rome, and What Is to Be Noted in It; Where It Is Considered, among Many Other Things, How through Such an Accident One Can Either Save or Crush a Republic
To Leap from Humility to Pride, from Mercy to Cruelty, without Due Degrees Is Something Imprudent and Useless
How Easily Men Can Be Corrupted
Those Who Engage in Combat for Their Own Glory Are Good and Faithful Soldiers
A Multitude without a Head Is Useless; and That One Should Not First Threaten and Then Request Authority
Nonobservance of a Law That Has Been Made, and Especially by Its Author, Is a Thing That Sets a Bad Example; and to Freshen New Injuries Every Day in a City Is Most Harmful to Whoever Governs It
Men Ascend from One Ambition to Another; First One Seeks Not to Be Offended, and Then One Offends Others
However Deceived in Generalities, Men Are Not Deceived in Particulars
He Who Wishes That a Magistracy Not Be Given to Someone Vile or Someone Wicked Should Have It Asked for Either by Someone Too Vile and Too Wicked or by Someone Too Noble and Too Good
If Those Cities That Have had a Free Beginning, Such as Rome, Have Difficulty in Finding Laws That Will Maintain Them, Those That Have Had One Immediately Servile Have Almost an Impossibility
One Council or One Magistrate Should Not Be Able to Stop the Actions of Cities
A Republic or a Prince Should Make a Show of Doing through Liberality What Necessity Constrains Him to Do
To Repress the Insolence of One Individual Who Rises Up in a Powerful Republic, There Is No More Secure and Less Scandalous Mode Than to Anticipate the Ways by Which He Comes to That Power
Many Times the People Desires Its Own Ruin, Deceived by a False Appearance of Good; and That Great Hopes and Mighty Promises Easily Move It
How Much Authority a Grave Man May Have to Check an Excited Multitude
How Easily Things May Be Conducted in Those Cities in Which the Multitude Is Not Corrupt; and That Where There Is Equality, a Principality Cannot Be Made, and Where There Is Not, a Republic Cannot Be Made
Before Great Accidents Occur in a City or in a Province, Signs Come That Forecast Them, or Men Who Predict Them
The Plebs Together Is Mighty, by Itself Weak
The Multitude Is Wiser and More Constant Than a Prince
Which Confederation or Other League Can Be More Trusted, That Made with a Republic or That Made with a Prince
That the Consulate and Any Other Magistracy Whatever in Rome Was Given without Respect to Age
Second Book
Which Was More the Cause of the Empire the Romans Acquired, Virtue or Fortune
What Peoples the Romans Had to Combat, and That They Obstinately Defended Their Freedom
Rome Became a Great City through Ruining the Surrounding Cities and Easily Admitting Foreigners to Its Honors
Republics Have Taken Three Modes of Expanding
That the Variation of Sects and Languages, Together with the Accident of Floods or Plague, Eliminates the Memories of Things
How the Romans Proceeded in Making War
How Much Land the Romans Gave Per Colonist
The Cause Why Peoples Leave Their Ancestral Places and Inundate the Country of Others
What Causes Commonly Make Wars Arise among Powers
Money Is Not the Sinew of War, As It Is according to the Common Opinion
It Is Not a Prudent Policy to Make a Friendship with a Prince Who Has More Reputation Than Force
Whether, When Fearing to Be Assaulted, It Is Better to Bring On or Await War
That One Comes from Base to Great Fortune More through Fraud Than through Force
Often Men Deceive Themselves Believing That through Humility They Will Conquer Pride
Weak States Will Always Be Ambiguous in Their Resolutions; and Slow Decisions Are Always Hurtful
How Much the Soldiers of Our Times Do Not Conform to the Ancient Orders
How Much Artillery Should Be Esteemed by Armies in the Present Times; and Whether the Opinion Universally Held of It Is True
How by the Authority of the Romans and by the Example of the Ancient Military Infantry Should Be Esteemed More Than Horse
That Acquisitions by Republics That Are Not Well Ordered and That Do Not Proceed According to Roman Virtue Are for Their Ruin, Not Their Exaltation
What Danger That Prince or Republic Runs That Avails Itself of Auxiliary or Mercenary Military
The First Praetor the Romans Sent Anyplace Was to Capua, Four Hundred Years after They Began to Make War
How False the Opinions of Men Often Are in Judging Great Things
How Much the Romans, in Judging Subjects for Some Accidents That Necessitated Such Judgment, Fled from the Middle Way
Fortresses Are Generally Much More Harmful Than Useful
To Assault a Disunited City So As to Seize It by Means of Its Disunion Is a Contradictory Policy
Vilification and Abuse Generate Hatred against Those Who Use Them, without Any Utility to Them
For Prudent Princes and Republics It Should Be Enough to Conquer, for Most Often When It Is Not Enough, One Loses
How Dangerous It Is for a Republic or a Prince Not to Avenge an Injury Done against the Public or against a Private Person
Fortune Blinds the Spirits of Men When It Does Not Wish Them to Oppose Its Plans
Truly Powerful Republics and Princes Buy Friendships Not with Money but with Virtue and the Reputation of Strength
How Dangerous It Is to Believe the Banished
In How Many Modes the Romans Seized Towns
How the Romans Gave Free Commissions to Their Captains of Armies
Third Book
If One Wishes a Sect or a Republic to Live Long, It Is Necessary to Draw It Back Often toward Its Beginning
That It Is a Very Wise Thing to Simulate Craziness at the Right Time
That It Is Necessary to Kill the Sons of Brutus If One Wishes to Maintain a Newly Acquired Freedom
A Prince Does Not Live Secure in a Principality While Those Who Have Been Despoiled of It Are Living
What Makes a King Who Is Heir to a Kingdom Lose It
Of Conspiracies
Whence It Arises That Changes from Freedom to Servitude and from Servitude to Freedom Are Some of Them without Blood, Some of Them Full of It
Whoever Wishes to Alter a Republic Should Consider Its Subject
How One Must Vary with the Times if One Wishes Always to Have Good Fortune
That a Captain Cannot Flee Battle When the Adversary Wishes Him to Engage in It in Any Mode
That Whoever Has to Deal with Very Many, Even Though He Is Inferior, Wins If Only He Can Sustain the First Thrusts
That a Prudent Captain Ought to Impose Every Necessity to Engage in Combat on His Soldiers and Take It Away from Those of Enemies
Which Is More to Be Trusted, a Good Captain Who Has a Weak Army or a Good Army That Has a Weak Captain
What Effects New Inventions That Appear in the Middle of the Fight and New Voices That Are Heard May Produce
That One Individual and Not Many Should Be Put over an Army; and That Several Commanders Hurt
That in Difficult Times One Goes to Find True Virtue; and in Easy Times Not Virtuous Men but Those with Riches or Kinship Have More Favor
That One Individual Should Not Be Offended and Then That Same One Sent to an Administration and Governance of Importance
Nothing Is More Worthy of a Captain Than to Foretell the Policies of the Enemy
Whether to Rule a Multitude Compliance Is More Necessary Than Punishment
One Example of Humanity Was Able to Do More with the Falisci Than Any Roman Force
Whence It Arises That with a Different Mode of Proceeding Hannibal Produced Those Same Effects in Italy as Scipio Did in Spain
That the Hardness of Manlius Torquatus and the Kindness of Valerius Corvinus Acquired for Each the Same Glory
For What Cause Camillus Was Expelled from Rome
The Prolongation of Commands Made Rome Servile
Of the Poverty of Cincinnatus and of Many Roman Citizens
How a State Is Ruined Because of Women
How One Has to Unite a Divided City; and How That Opinion Is Not True That to Hold Cities One Needs to Hold Them Divided
That One Should Be Mindful of the Works of Citizens Because Many Times underneath a Merciful Work a Beginning of Tyranny Is Concealed
That the Sins of Peoples Arise from Princes
For One Citizen Who Wishes to Do Any Good Work in His Republic by His Authority, It Is Necessary First to Eliminate Envy; and How, on Seeing the Enemy, One Has to Order the Defense of a City
Strong Republics and Excellent Men Retain the Same Spirit and Their Same Dignity in Every Fortune
What Modes Some Have Held to for Disturbing a Peace
If One Wishes to Win a Battle, It Is Necessary to Make the Army Confident Both among Themselves and in the Captain
What Fame or Word or Opinion Makes the People Begin to Favor a Citizen; and Whether It Distributes Magistracies with Greater Prudence Than a Prince
What Dangers Are Borne in Making Oneself Head in Counseling a Thing; and the More It Has of the Extraordinary, the Greater Are the Dangers Incurred in It
The Causes Why the French Have Been and Are Still Judged in Fights at the Beginning As More Than Men and Later As Less Than Women
Whether Small Battles Are Necessary before the Main Battle; and If One Wishes to Avoid Them, What One Ought to Do to Know a New Enemy
How a Captain in Whom His Army Can Have Confidence Ought to Be Made
That a Captain Ought to Be a Knower of Sites
That to Use Fraud in Managing War Is a Glorious Thing
That the Fatherland Ought to Be Defended, Whether with Ignominy or with Glory; and It Is Well Defended in Any Mode Whatever
That Promises Made Through Force Ought Not to Be Observed
That Men Who Are Born in One Province Observe Almost the Same Nature for All Times
One Often Obtains with Impetuosity and Audacity What One Would Never Have Obtained through Ordinary Modes
What the Better Policy Is in Battles, to Resist the Thrust of Enemies and, Having Resisted It, to Charge Them; or Indeed to Assault Them with Fury from the First
Whence It Arises That One Family in One City Keeps the Same Customs for a Time
That a Good Citizen Ought to Forget Private Injuries for Love of His Fatherland
When One Sees a Great Error Made by an Enemy, One Ought to Believe That There Is a Deception Underneath
A Republic Has Need of New Acts of Foresight Every Day If One Wishes to Maintain It Free; and for What Merits Quintus Fabius Was Called Maximus
Glossary 311(38)
Index of Proper Names 349

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