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The Interplay of Influence News, Advertising, Politics, and the Internet (with InfoTrac),9780534559380

The Interplay of Influence News, Advertising, Politics, and the Internet (with InfoTrac)

by ;
Edition: 6th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 7/25/2005
Publisher(s): Wadsworth Publishing
Availability: This title is currently not available.

Summary

Is there such a thing as unfiltered information? Not in today's age. THE INTERPLAY OF INFLUENCE: NEWS, ADVERTISING, POLITICS, AND THE INTERNET gives you an understanding of how mass media operates in your world and how powerful it can be. And, you'll also discover the shaping role of the Internet in today's mass media. Plus, it's loaded with study tools and helpful reviews so you can get the grade you need in class, too.

Table of Contents

The Media: An Introduction
1(39)
A Brief History of the Mass Media
4(1)
The Mass Media: Social Systems
5(1)
The Role of Mass Media Advertising
5(1)
The Audience
6(1)
Media and Measurement
6(27)
Television
7(1)
The Rise of Cable
8(4)
The Changing Modes of Delivering Images through Television
12(3)
Ratings
15(7)
Radio
22(1)
Arbitron Ratings
23(1)
Talk Radio
24(1)
Newspapers
25(2)
Magazines
27(2)
The Internet
29(1)
The Internet as a Transnational Communicator
30(1)
The New Programmers
30(2)
Expanded Interactivity
32(1)
The New Media Environment
33(4)
Twenty-Four-Hour News
33(1)
Changing Influence of the Press
33(4)
To Sum Up
37(2)
Selected Readings
39(1)
What Is News?
40(44)
Hard News Defined
41(13)
Hard News Is Personalized, about Individuals
42(3)
Hard News Is Dramatic, Conflict-Filled, and Violent
45(3)
Hard News Is Action, an Event, an Identifiable Occurrence
48(1)
Hard News Is Novel, Deviant, Out of the Ordinary
49(1)
Hard News Reports Events Linked to Issues Prevalent in the News at the Time
50(4)
What Is Covered and Reported
54(12)
Audience Interest
54(1)
External Constraints
54(1)
Access
54(3)
Cost
57(2)
The Impact of Technology: Lower Costs, Direct Video-streaming, and the Tethered Reporter
59(1)
Time and Space
59(2)
Internal Constraints
61(1)
Use of Available Footage
61(1)
Covering Visual Events
61(2)
Covering Newsworthy People
63(1)
Avoiding Stories That Give Offense
64(1)
Becoming the News
65(1)
Changing News Norms
66(6)
Relevance to Governance or Abuse of Power
67(1)
Public Display
67(1)
Hypocrisy Forecast
68(1)
Hypocrisy Added
68(1)
Statute of Limitations
68(1)
Lying and Recency
69(2)
Hypocrisy Broadly Construed
71(1)
How the Story Is Presented
72(7)
Reporter Expertise
72(1)
Fairness and Balance
73(1)
Story Length
74(2)
Story Structure
76(2)
Objectivity
78(1)
To Sum Up
79(3)
Selected Readings
82(2)
News as Persuasion
84(35)
Dramatizing and Sensationalizing Content
84(10)
The Screen
84(1)
The Camera
85(2)
Special Effects
87(1)
Editing
88(2)
Filmed and Taped Coverage
90(2)
Anchors and On-Air Reporters
92(2)
Inaccurate and Incomplete Reporting
94(9)
Deadlines and Competition
94(1)
Breaking News
95(1)
Exclusive Breaking News
96(1)
Story Structure
96(1)
Anonymous and Composite Sources, Misrepresented Tape
97(2)
Readers' Advocates
99(2)
News Analysis
101(1)
Media Convergence
102(1)
Unbalanced Interpretation
103(7)
Insinuation through Selection of Language
103(1)
Ideological Bias
104(3)
Self-Censorship
107(1)
The Fairness Doctrine
107(1)
Beats
107(1)
Government Support
107(2)
Audience Taste
109(1)
Direct Intervention
110(3)
Breaches of Neutrality
110(1)
Producing Social Change
111(1)
Journalists as Direct Participants
111(2)
The Civic Journalism Movement
113(1)
To Sum Up
113(1)
Analysis: Analyzing a News Item
114(4)
Newsworthiness
114(1)
Reporter
114(1)
The News Story
115(1)
Constraints
115(1)
Framing
115(1)
Inclusion/Exclusion
116(1)
Setting
116(1)
Timing
116(1)
Placement
116(1)
Patterns
117(1)
Manipulation
118(1)
Impact
118(1)
Selected Readings
118(1)
Influencing the News Media
119(37)
Influencing Journalistic Norms and Routines
119(21)
Manipulating Deadlines
119(4)
Manipulating Access
123(3)
Setting Up a Controlled Channel
126(1)
Manipulating News Assignments
127(1)
Media Competition
128(1)
Using Access to Media to Manipulate the Agenda
129(1)
Expanded Opportunities for Direct Address
129(1)
Satellites
129(1)
The Internet
129(1)
Language and Symbols
129(5)
The Perils of Live Coverage
134(1)
Prepackaged News
135(1)
Pseudo-Events
136(1)
News Feeds
137(3)
Prepared Editorials
140(1)
Commercial Pressures
140(5)
Costs of Preempting Programming
141(2)
Pressures from Advertisers
143(1)
Threat of Lawsuits
144(1)
Political Pressure
145(10)
Presidential Newsworthiness
146(1)
National Security
147(1)
Government Manipulation
147(8)
To Sum Up
155(1)
Selected Readings
155(1)
How Corporate Power Influences What We See
156(15)
A Brief History of Media Consolidation
156(13)
A Focus on Profits
158(1)
Staff Cuts
158(4)
Reduction in Serious Political Content That Draws Low Audiences
162(3)
To Attract Audiences, Definition of News Shifts toward Human Interest
165(1)
Loss of News That Is of Local but Not Regional or National Interest
165(1)
Magnified Pro-Business Message While Minimizing Scrutiny of Parent Corporations
166(1)
Cross-Promotion: Synergy
167(1)
Fewer Voices Providing News
168(1)
To Sum Up
169(1)
Selected Readings
170(1)
What is Advertising?
171(27)
Defining Advertising
172(1)
Shifting Ad Placement
173(5)
Product Placement
173(1)
Blurring Program and Ad Content
174(1)
Incentives to View Ads
174(4)
Mediated Advertising
178(2)
Kinds of Traditional Mass Media Advertising
180(6)
Product Ads
180(1)
The Product as Ad
181(1)
Service Ads
181(1)
Goodwill Ads
182(1)
Advocacy Ads
183(1)
Direct-Response Ads (Infomercials)
184(1)
Public Service Announcements
185(1)
Political Ads
186(1)
Issue Advocacy Ads
186(1)
Nontraditional Advertising
186(3)
In-Store Advertising
187(1)
Digital Billboards
187(1)
Search Advertising
187(1)
Sponsored Links
188(1)
Spam
188(1)
How to Determine Whether It's an Ad
189(3)
How Ads Reveal the Advertiser
189(1)
How Ads Reveal the Intended Audience
189(3)
Advertising and Reality: Stereotypes
192(1)
Advertising Values
193(3)
The World According to Commercials
193(3)
Seeing the Other Side
196(1)
The Interplay of News and Advertising
196(1)
To Sum Up
197(1)
Selected Reading
197(1)
Persuasion Through Advertising
198(36)
The Advertiser's Aims
198(1)
Creating Product Recognition
198(5)
Trademarks
198(2)
Naming
200(1)
Packaging
201(1)
Slogans
201(2)
Differentiation
203(2)
Unique Selling Proposition
203(1)
Association
204(1)
Participation
205(7)
Disentangling Meaning
206(1)
Identification with Ad Characters
206(1)
Significant Experiences
207(1)
Making the Audience an Accomplice
208(4)
Redundancy
212(2)
Repeated Claims
212(2)
Repeated Exposure
214(1)
Advertisers' Strategies for Persuasion
214(7)
Naming the Product
217(1)
Differentiating Products
218(1)
Pseudo-Claims
218(1)
Comparison with an Unidentified Other Ad
218(1)
Comparing Their Product with an Unnamed Other Product
219(1)
Comparison of the Product with Its Earlier Form
219(1)
Irrelevant Comparisons
219(1)
The Pseudo-Survey
220(1)
Use It: It's Been Tested by Disinterested Experts
220(1)
Creating Associations
221(11)
Associations with Celebrities and Authorities
221(1)
Use It: Be Like Me
221(1)
Use It: I'm an Authority
221(1)
Cannibalizing the Past for Associations
222(1)
Appropriating Historical People and Events
223(1)
Trading on Someone's Good Name
224(1)
Appropriating a Famous Phrase
224(1)
Creating a Memorable Phrase
225(1)
Exploiting Social Movements
225(2)
Nationalistic Associations
227(1)
Associating Media Outlets to Products
228(1)
Exploiting Argumentative Forms to Create Associations and Participation
228(1)
Implying Causality
228(1)
Juxtaposition
229(1)
Exploiting Coincidental Relationships
229(1)
Implying ``If . . . Then''
230(1)
Implying ``If Not . . . Then Not''
231(1)
But Does Advertising Work?
232(1)
To Sum Up
232(1)
Selected Readings
233(1)
Influencing Advertisers
234(27)
Regulation and Self-Regulation
234(10)
The Federal Trade Commission
234(4)
The Powers of Other State and Federal Agencies
238(2)
The National Advertising Division
240(2)
The National Association of Broadcasters
242(1)
Network Standards
243(1)
Obstacles to Regulation
244(3)
Problems Faced by Regulators
245(1)
Determining Deception
245(1)
Effects of Stricter Regulation
246(1)
What Advertisers May Not Say and Do
247(8)
Limitations on Distortion
247(1)
Product Characteristics
248(1)
Product Performance
248(1)
Puffery
249(1)
Fantasy
250(1)
Limitations Imposed by the Audience
251(1)
Children in Audiences
251(1)
Taboos
252(3)
To Sum Up
255(1)
Analysis: Analyzing an Ad
255(5)
What Type of Ad Is It?
255(1)
If the Ad Is a PSA
255(1)
If the Ad Is an Idea Ad (pro-life or pro-choice, for example)
256(1)
If the Ad Advertises a Service Rather Than a Product (for example, travel on a certain airline)
256(1)
If the Ad Is a Goodwill Ad
256(1)
If the Ad Is a Political Ad
256(1)
If the Ad Is a Product Ad
257(1)
Audience
257(1)
Ad Content (not all points apply to PSAs)
257(1)
Assumptions (values presumed in the ad)
258(1)
Programming or Content Sponsored by an Ad
259(1)
Content Surrounding (Contextualizing) an Ad
259(1)
Media Mix
259(1)
Pressure on Advertiser
259(1)
Effect
259(1)
Selected Readings
260(1)
How to Influence the Media
261(21)
Individual Complaints
261(5)
Group Pressure
266(8)
Boycotts
266(4)
Legal Actions
270(2)
Promoting Self-Regulation
272(2)
Pressure from an Established Organization
274(2)
Pressure from a Social Movement
276(2)
Creating Legislative Pressure
278(1)
State Level
278(1)
Federal Level
278(1)
To Sum Up
279(1)
Analysis: Constructing a Strategy for Message Distribution
279(2)
Step 1: Isolating the Message
280(1)
Step 2: Defining the Intended Audience
280(1)
Step 3: Determining the Newsworthiness of the Message
280(1)
Step 4: Determining Factors Constraining Release
280(1)
Step 5: Selecting Appropriate Channels
280(1)
Step 6: Adapting the Message to the Channel
281(1)
Step 7: Monitoring Your Success or Failure
281(1)
Selected Readings
281(1)
Political Versus Product Campaigns
282(23)
Defining Ads
282(1)
Candidate Access: Free Time
283(1)
What Protects Voters: Responsibility of Journalists
283(1)
Products versus Candidates
284(1)
Using the Media
284(4)
Creating an Image
285(1)
Targeting the Audience
285(2)
Economic versus Political Values
287(1)
Regulation
288(5)
Censorship
288(4)
Equal Opportunity
292(1)
Right to Access
292(1)
Cost and Access
293(1)
Campaign Spending Limits
293(5)
McCain-Feingold: Campaign Finance Reform
294(1)
527s
295(1)
Issue Advocacy
296(2)
Campaign Objectives
298(5)
Voting versus Buying
299(3)
Criteria for Victory
302(1)
Unpaid Coverage
303(1)
Quality
303(1)
Endorsements
304(1)
Financing
304(1)
To Sum Up
304(1)
Selected Readings
304(1)
How Has the Internet Changed Politics?
305(12)
How the Interactivity of the Internet Is Changing Politics
305(7)
Increasing Citizen Access to Information
306(1)
Mobilizing and Raising Money through the Web
307(1)
Feedback
308(1)
New Forms of Attack
308(2)
The Reader as Writer and Critic
310(1)
The Downside
310(1)
Lurkers and Trolls
310(1)
Spreading Inaccurate Information
311(1)
Mainstream as Monitor of the New Medium
312(1)
Democratizing the Production of Content: The Citizen as Content Producer
312(2)
Web Ads
314(1)
To Sum Up
315(1)
Selected Readings
316(1)
News and Advertising in the Political Campaign
317(36)
Controlling News Coverage
317(14)
Controlling Media Access
318(1)
Setting the Media's Agenda
318(1)
Creating Credible Pseudo-Events
319(1)
Using Ads to Contextualize News
320(1)
Blurring the Distinction between News and Commercials
321(1)
Exploiting Media Concepts of the Political Process
322(1)
The Campaign
322(1)
The Candidates
323(5)
Responding to or Preventing Attack
328(1)
Backlash
329(1)
Last-Minute Attacks
330(1)
Adwatches
331(11)
Responding to Last-Minute Attacks
334(4)
Exploiting Blunders
338(1)
Attacks Legitimized by the Media
339(2)
Enlisting the Help of Journalists
341(1)
Tests of Credibility Applied by Journalists
341(1)
How Has Television Changed Politics?
342(4)
Image versus Issues; Character versus Positions
344(1)
The Comparative Relevance of Character and Stands on Issues
344(1)
Determining Which Issues Are the Likely Focus of a Campaign
345(1)
Determining Which Facets of Character Are the Likely Focus in a Campaign
346(1)
The Interplay of Influence: Issues and Character in Ads, News, and Debates
346(4)
Ads
347(1)
Limitations
347(1)
News
347(1)
Limitations
348(1)
Debates
348(1)
Limitations
348(2)
To Sum Up
350(1)
Analysis: Political Ads and News
351(1)
Determining Who Is Newsworthy
351(1)
Determining What Is Covered
351(1)
Relationship of Candidates and Reporters
351(1)
The Image of the Candidate
351(1)
Candidates' Ads
352(1)
Selected Readings
352(1)
Notes 353(16)
Index 369

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