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Jerusalem : Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period (538 B. C. E. -70 C. E. ),9780827607507

Jerusalem : Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period (538 B. C. E. -70 C. E. )

by
Edition: 1st
Format: Hardcover
Pub. Date: 2/1/2003
Publisher(s): Univ of Nebraska Pr
Availability: This title is currently not available.

Summary

Jerusalem in the Second Temple period experienced dramatic growth as it achieved unprecedented political, religious, and spiritual prominence. Lee Levine traces the development of Jerusalem during this time -- through its urban, demographic, topographical, and archeological features, its political regimes, public institutions, and its cultural and religious life.

International recognition as a temple-city accorded Jerusalem a distinguished position in Jewish and non-Jewish eyes alike. It was the seat of all major national institutions and the home of important priestly and aristocratic families, as well as of various religious sects. It was here that the synagogue emerged as the central Jewish communal institution, with its innovative liturgy that revolved around the reading of the Torah.

Dramatic photos, maps, illustrations, extensive notes, and an index support Levine's impeccable research.

Author Biography

Lee I. Levine is on the faculty of the Department of History and the Institute of Archeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction xiii
Part I. From Cyrus to the Hasmoneans
The Persian Era (539--332 B.C.E.)
3(42)
The Restoration of City and Temple
8(4)
The First Returnees: Hopes Thwarted by Hardships
12(3)
The Temple Rebuilt
15(5)
The Era of Ezra and Nehemiah
20(11)
Ezra
20(3)
Nehemiah
23(5)
Religious Reforms
28(3)
The Enigmatic Fourth Century B.C.E.
31(11)
The Persian Era in Perspective
42(3)
The Hellenistic Era (332--141 B.C.E.)
45(46)
The Ptolemaic Era (301--198 B.C.E.)
48(17)
Leadership of the City
51(3)
In the Hellenistic Orbit
54(6)
Judaism in Ptolemaic Jerusalem
60(5)
The Seleucid Era (198-141 B.C.E.)
65(26)
The Decrees of Antiochus III
65(4)
Jason's Reforms and Their Aftermath
69(6)
The Seleucid Akra
75(3)
Jerusalem during the Maccabean Revolt
78(4)
Dedication of the Temple and the Festival of Hanukkah
82(4)
Jerusalem under Jonathan the Hasmonean
86(5)
The Hasmonean Era (141--63 B.C.E.)
91(60)
The Hasmonean Factor in Jerusalem Society
92(7)
Biblical Precedents
93(2)
The Wedding of Politics and Religion
95(2)
Between Judaism and Hellenism
97(2)
Three Episodes in Hasmonean Jerusalem
99(7)
The Great Assembly and Simon's Installation---140 B.C.E.
99(3)
The Siege of Jerusalem by Antiochus VII (ca. 134-132 B.C.E.)
102(2)
Civil Disobedience and Rebellion under Alexander Jannaeus
104(2)
The Urban Setting
106(8)
Political and Religious Groupings in Hasmonean Jerusalem
114(19)
Hever Ha-Yehudim
114(1)
The Priesthood
115(4)
Religious Sects
119(5)
Pharisees and Sadducees
124(1)
The Ideological Dimension
124(2)
The Sociopolitical Dimension
126(3)
Other Aspects of Hasmonean Pharisaism
129(1)
Essenes
130(2)
Other Religious Circles: The Literary Evidence
132(1)
Common Judaism under the Hasmoneans
133(10)
The Temple in Hasmonean Jerusalem
134(3)
Temple-Related Observances
137(2)
``Purity Burst Forth in Israel''
139(3)
The Avoidance of Figural Art
142(1)
Hellenization in Hasmonean Jerusalem
143(4)
The End of an Era
147(4)
Part II. Herodian Jerusalem
The Historical Dimension
151(36)
Transition to Roman Rule
151(7)
From Pompey's Conquest to the Rise of Herod (63--37 B.C.E.)
158(7)
Herodian Politics: At Home and Abroad (37--4 B.C.E.)
165(5)
Herodian Rule in Jerusalem
170(9)
Herod's Domestic Woes
179(2)
Evaluating Herod and His Rule
181(2)
The Reign of Archelaus (4 B.C.E.--6 C.E.)
183(4)
The Urban Landscape
187(32)
The Antonia
194(2)
The Western Towers
196(2)
Herod's Palace
198(3)
Entertainment Institutions
201(5)
Funerary Remains
206(7)
Water Supply and Installations
213(6)
The Temple and Temple Mount
219(36)
The Temple Mount: Physical Dimensions and Functions
226(11)
The Temple and Its Courts
237(6)
Temple Functionaries
243(2)
The Temple as a Religious Focus
245(10)
Jerusalem in the Greco-Roman Orbit: The Extent and Limitations of Cultural Fusion
255(30)
The Temple
257(3)
Residential Quarters
260(1)
Funerary Remains
261(4)
Political Institutions
265(5)
Language
270(6)
Pharisaic Exegesis
276(2)
Defining the Limits of Acculturation
278(7)
Part III. The First Century C.E.
The Historical Dimension
285(28)
Direct Roman Rule: The Earlier Period (6--41 C.E.)
285(10)
Jerusalem under Agrippa I (41--44 C.E.)
295(7)
Procuratorial Rule (44--66 C.E.): The Collapse of Jerusalem Society
302(11)
The Urban Configuration
313(38)
Geographical Expansion
313(2)
The Third Wall
315(3)
Topography
318(1)
The Lower City
319(7)
The Upper City
326(9)
The Northern Commercial Quarter
335(2)
The Bezetha Quarter (the New City)
337(3)
Demography
340(3)
Economic Activity
343(6)
Appendix: The Use of Rabbinic Literature in the Study of Second Temple Jerusalem
349(2)
Social Stratification
351(24)
The Social Dimension
351(1)
High Priests
352(6)
Priests
358(3)
The Herodian Dynasty
361(4)
The Nonpriestly Aristocracy
365(4)
Diaspora Jews
369(6)
Religious Ambience
375(26)
Religious Life in First-Century Jerusalem
375(6)
Scribes
381(1)
The Christian Community
382(5)
Common Judaism in First-Century Jerusalem
387(7)
Synagogues
394(7)
The Destruction of Jerusalem (66--70 C.E.)
401(12)
Causes of the Revolt
401(3)
Jerusalem during the Revolt (66--70 C.E.)
404(2)
The Siege and Fall of the City
406(7)
Epilogue 413(4)
Glossary 417(3)
Abbreviations 420(3)
Bibliography 423(47)
Modern Sources
423(46)
Critical Editions
469(1)
Illustration Credits 470(2)
Subject Index 472

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