## Summary

Featuring an exceptionally clear writing style and a wealth of real-world examples and exercises, *Logic,* Third Edition, shows how logic relates to everyday life, demonstrating its applications in such areas as the workplace, media and entertainment, politics, science and technology, student life, and elsewhere. **Thoroughly revised and expanded in this third edition, the text now features nearly 2,800 exercises, more than 200 of them new; updates throughout; and a revised and expanded ancillary package.**

**FEATURES**:

* **2800 exercises--more than 200 of them new--**breathe new life into logic

* The **clearest explanations and real-world examples** help bring logic down to earth for students

* **A unique, extended explanation or model of the answer to the first question of each exercise section** shows students what is expected of their answers

* **"Profiles in Logic"** provide short sketches of logicians, philosophers, mathematicians, and others associated with logic

* **"Logic Challenge"** problems present puzzles and paradoxes that end each chapter on a fun note

* **Pedagogical elements--marginal definitions, key terms, a glossary, reference boxes, and bulleted chapter summaries--**make the material even more accessible

* **Detailed guides** help students learn to complete "truth tables" and Venn diagrams

## Author Biography

**Stan Baronett** is the author of *Logic, *Second Edition.

## Table of Contents

**Each chapter ends with a Summary and Key Terms. **

*Preface*

**PART I: SETTING THE STAGE **

**Chapter 1. What Logic Studies **

**A. Statements and Arguments **

**B. Recognizing Arguments **

*Exercises 1B*

**C. Arguments and Explanations **

*Exercises 1C*

**D. Truth and Logic **

**E. Deductive and Inductive Arguments **

*Exercises 1E*

**F. Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness **

Argument Form

Counterexamples

Summary of Deductive Arguments

*Exercises 1F*

**G. Inductive Arguments: Strength and Cogency **

Techniques of Analysis

The Role of New Information

Summary of Inductive Arguments

*Exercises 1G*

**H. Reconstructing Arguments **

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Problem of the Hats

**PART II: INFORMAL LOGIC **

**Chapter 2. Language Matters **

**A. Intension and Extension **

Terms, Use, and Mention

Two Kinds of Meaning

Proper Names

*Exercises 2A*

**B. Using Intensional Definitions **

Synonymous Definitions

Word Origin Definitions

Operational Definitions

Definition by Genus and Difference

**C. Using Extensional Definitions **

Ostensive Definitions

Enumerative Definitions

Definition by Subclass

*Exercises 2C*

**D. Applying Definitions **

Stipulative Definitions

Lexical Definitions

Functional Definitions

Precising Definitions

Theoretical Definitions

Persuasive Definitions

*Exercises 2D*

**E. Guidelines for Informative Definitions **

*Exercises 2E*

**F.Cognitive and Emotive Meaning **

*Exercises 2F*

**G.Factual And Verbal Disputes **

*Exercises 2G*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Path

**Chapter 3. Diagramming Arguments **

**A. The Basics of Diagramming Arguments **

**B. Diagramming Extended Arguments **

*Exercises 3B*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Train to Vegas

**Chapter 4. Informal Fallacies **

**A. Why Study Fallacies? **

**B. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional Appeals **

**Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks **

1. *Ad hominem* abusive

2. *Ad hominem* circumstantial

3. Poisoning the well

*4. Tu quoque*

**Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals **

5. Appeal to the people

6. Appeal to pity

7. Appeal to fear or force

Summary of Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks

Summary of Fallacious Appeals to Emotion

*Exercises 4B*

**C. Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies **

**Generalization Fallacies **

8. Rigid application of a generalization

9. Hasty generalization

10. Composition

11. Division

12. Biased sample

False cause fallacies

*13. Post hoc*

14. Slippery slope

Summary of Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies

*Exercises 4C*

**D. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion **

**Unwarranted Assumption **

15. Begging the Question

16. Complex Question

17. Appeal to Ignorance

18. Appeal to an Unqualified Authority

19. False Dichotomy

**Fallacies of Diversion **

20. Equivocation

21. Straw Man

22. Red Herring

23. Misleading Precision

24. Missing the Point

Summary of Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption and Diversion

*Exercises 4D*

**E. Recognizing Fallacies in Ordinary Language **

*Exercises 4E*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Clever Problem

**PART III: FORMAL LOGIC **

**Chapter 5. Categorical Propositions **

**A. Categorical Propositions **

*Exercises 5A*

**B. Quantity, Quality, and Distribution **

*Exercises 5B*

**C. Existential Import **

**D. The Modern Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams **

Venn Diagrams

*Exercises 5D*

**E. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Modern Square **

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

Diagrams

Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition

*Exercises 5E*

**F. The Traditional Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams **

*Exercises 5F.1*

Venn Diagram and the Traditional Square

*Exercises 5F.2*

**G. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Traditional Square **

Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

*Exercises 5G*

**H. Translating Ordinary Language into Categorical Propositions **

Missing Plural Nouns

Nonstandard Verbs

Singular Propositions

Adverbs and Pronouns

"It Is False That . . . "

Implied Quantifiers

Nonstandard Quantifiers

Conditional Statements

Exclusive Propositions

"The Only"

Propositions Requiring Two Translations

*Exercises 5H*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Group Relationship

**Chapter 6. Categorical Syllogisms **

**A. Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms **

**B. Mood and Fiture **

*Exercises 6B*

**C. Diagramming in the Modern Interpretation **

Diagramming A-Propositions

Diagramming E-Propositions

Diagramming I-Propositions

Diagramming O-Propositions

Wrapping Up the X

Is the Syllogism Valid?

*Exercises 6C*

**D. Rules and Fallacies under the Modern Interpretation **

Summary of Rules

*Exercises 6D*

**E. Diagramming in the Traditional Interpretation **

A-Propositions

E-Propositions

*Exercises 6E*

**F. Rules and Fallacies under the Traditional Interpretation **

*Exercises 6F*

**G. Ordinary Language Arguments **

Reducing the Number of Terms in an Argument

*Exercises 6G.1*

Paraphrasing Ordinary Language Arguments

Categorical Propositions and Multiple Arguments

*Exercises 6G.2*

**H. Enthymemes **

*Exercises 6H*

**I. Sorites **

*Exercises 6I*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Four Circles

**Chapter 7. Propositional Logic **

**A. Logical Operators and Translations **

Simple and Compound Statements

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Conditional

Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"

Sufficient and Necessary Conditions

Biconditional

Summary of Operators and Ordinary Language

*Exercises 7A*

**B. Compound Statements **

Well-Formed Formulas

*Exercises 7B.1*

Main Operator

*Exercises 7B.2*

Translations and the Main Operator

*Exercises 7B.3*

**C. Truth Functions **

Defining the Five Logical Operators

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Conditional

Biconditional

*Exercises 7C.1*

Operator Truth Tables and Ordinary Language

Propositions with Assigned Truth Values

*Exercises 7C.2*

**D. Truth Tables for Propositions **

Arranging the Truth Values

The Order of Operations

*Exercises 7D*

**E. Contingent and Noncontingent Statements **

Tautology

Self-Contradiction

*Exercises 7E*

**F. Logical Equivalence, Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements **

*Exercises 7F.1*

Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements

*Exercises 7F.2*

**G. Truth Tables for Arguments **

Validity

Analyzing Sufficient and Necessary Conditions in Arguments

Technical Validity

*Exercises 7G.1*

Argument Forms

*Exercises 7G.2*

**H. Indirect Truth Tables **

Thinking through an Argument

A Shorter Truth Table

*Exercises 7H.1*

Using Indirect Truth Tables to Examine Statements for Consistency

*Exercises 7H.2*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Card Problem

**Chapter 8. Natural Deduction **

**A. Natural Deduction **

**B. Implication Rules I **

*Modus Ponens* (MP)

*Modus Tollens* (MT)

Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)

Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)

Justification: Applying the Rules of Inference

*Exercises 8B*

**C. Tactics and Strategy **

Applying the First Four Implication Rules

*Exercises 8C*

**D. Implication Rules II **

Simplification (SIMP)

Conjunction (CONJ)

Addition (ADD)

Constructive Dilemma (CD)

Applying the Second Four Implication Rules

*Exercises 8D*

**E. Replacement Rules I **

De Morgan (DM)

Double Negation (DN)

Commutation (Com)

Association (Assoc)

Distribution (Dist)

Applying the First Five Replacement Rules

*Exercises 8E*

**F. Replacement Rules II **

Transposition (Trans)

Material Implication (Impl)

Material Equivalence (Equiv)

Exportation (Exp)

Tautology (Taut)

Applying the Second Five Replacement Rules

*Exercises 8F*

**G. Conditional Proof **

*Exercises 8G*

**H. Indirect Proof **

*Exercises 8H*

**I. Proving Logical Truths **

*Exercises 8I*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Truth

**Chapter 9. Predicate Logic **

**A. Translating Ordinary Language **

Singular Statements

Universal Statements

Particular Statements

**Summary of Predicate Logic Symbols **

Paying Attention to Meaning

*Exercises 9A*

**B. Four New Rules of Inference **

Universal Instantiation

Universal Generalization

Existential Generalization

Existential Instantiation

Summary of the Four Rules

Tactics and Strategy

*Exercises 9B*

**C. Change of Quantifier **

*Exercises 9C*

**D. Conditional and Indirect Proof **

Conditional Proof

Indirect Proof

*Exercises 9D*

**E. Demonstrating Invalidity **

Counterexample Method

Finite Universe Method

Indirect Truth Tables

*Exercises 9E*

**F. Relational Predicates **

Translations

*Exercises 9F.1*

Proofs

A New Restriction

Change of Quantifier

Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof

*Exercises 9F.2*

**G. Identity **

**Simple Identity Statements **

"Only"

"The Only"

"No . . . Except"

"All Except"

**Superlatives **

"At Most"

"At Least"

"Exactly"

Definite Descriptions

Summary of Identity Translations

*Exercises 9G.1*

Proofs

*Exercises 9G.2*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Your Name and Age, Please

**PART IV: INDUCTIVE LOGIC **

**Chapter 10. Analogical Arguments **

**A. The Framework of Analogical Arguments **

*Exercises 10A*

**B. Analyzing Analogical Arguments **

Criteria for Analyzing Analogical Arguments

*Exercises 10B*

**C. Strategies of Evaluation **

Disanalogies

Counteranalogy

Unintended Consequences

Combining Strategies

*Exercises 10C*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Beat the Cheat

**Chapter 11. Legal Arguments **

**A. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning **

**B. Conditional Statements **

**C. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions **

**D. Disjunction and Conjunction **

**E. Analyzing a Complex Rule **

*Exercises 11E*

**F. Analogies **

**G. The Role of Precedent **

*Exercises 11G*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Guilty Problem

**Chapter 12. Moral Arguments **

**A. Value Judgments **

Justifying "Should"

Types of Value Judgments

Taste and Value

*Exercises 12A*

**B. Moral Theories **

Emotivism

Consequentialism

Egoism

Utilitarianism

Deontology

Relativism

Contrasting Moral Theories

*Exercises 12B*

**C. The Naturalistic Fallacy **

**D. The Structure of Moral Arguments **

**E. Analogies and Moral Arguments **

*Exercises 12E*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Dangerous Cargo

**Chapter 13: Statistical Arguments and Probability **

**A. Samples and Populations **

*Exercises 13A*

**B. Statistical Averages **

*Exercises 13B*

**C. Standard Deviation **

Dividing the Curve

The Size of the Standard Deviation

How to Calculate the Standard Deviation

*Exercises 13C*

**D. What if the Results Are Skewed? **

**E. The Misuse of Statistics **

*Exercises 13E*

**F. Probability Theories **

*A Priori* Theory

Relative Frequency Theory

Subjectivist Theory

**G. Probability Calculus **

Conjunction Methods

Disjunction Methods

Negation Method

*Exercises 13G*

**H. True Odds in Games of Chance **

**I. Bayesian Theory **

*Exercises 13I*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Second Child

**Chapter 14. Causality and Scientific Arguments **

**A. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions **

*Exercises 14A*

**B. Causality **

**C. Mill's Methods **

Method of Agreement

Method of Difference

Joint Method of Agreement and Difference

Method of Residues

Method of Concomitant Variations

*Exercises 14C*

**D. Limitations of Mill's Methods **

**E. Theoretical and Experimental Science **

**F. Inference to the Best Explanation **

**G. Hypothesis Testing, Experiments, and Predictions **

Controlled Experiments

Determining Causality

**H. Science and Superstition **

The Need for a Fair Test

Verifiable Predictions

Nontrivial Predictions

Connecting the Hypothesis and Prediction

Science and Superstition

The Allure of Superstition

*Exercises 14H*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Scale and the Coins

**Online Chapter 15. Analyzing a Long Essay **

**A. Childbed Fever **

**B. Vienna **

*Exercises 15B*

**C. Miasm and Contagion **

*Exercises 15C*

**D. Semmelweis's Account of the Discovery **

*Exercises 15D*

**E. Initial Questions **

*Exercises 15E*

**F. A New Interpretation **

*Exercises 15F*

*Bibliography*

*Glossary*

*Answers to Selected Exercises*

*Index*