Skip Navigation
List Price: $277.03

Buy New

In Stock. Usually ships in 24 hours.
$174.30

Buy Used

In Stock. Usually ships in 24 hours.
$62.88

Rent Textbook

Select for Price
Add to Cart Free Shipping
There was a problem. Please try again later.
Microfabrication and Nanomanufacturing,9780824724313

Microfabrication and Nanomanufacturing

by ;
Edition: 1st
Format: Hardcover
Pub. Date: 11/10/2005
Publisher(s): CRC Press

Summary

Nanotechnology, seen as the next leap forward in the industrial revolution, requires that manufacturers develop processes that revolutionize the way small products are made. Microfabrication and Nanomanufacturingfocuses on the technology of fabrication and manufacturing of engineering materials at these levels. The book provides an overview of techniques used in the semiconductor industry. It also discusses scaling and manufacturing processes operating at the nanoscale for non-semiconductor applications; the construction of nanoscale components using established lithographic techniques; bulk and surface micromachining techniques used for etching, machining, and molding procedures; and manufacturing techniques such as injection molding and hot embossing. This authoritative compilation describes non-traditional micro and nanoscale processing that uses a newly developed technique called pulsed water jet machining as well as the efficient removal of materials using optical energy. Additional chapters focus on the development of nanoscale processes for producing products other than semiconductors; the use of abrasive particles embedded in porous tools; and the deposition and application of nanocrystalline diamond. Economic factors are also presented and concern the promotion and commercialization of micro and nanoscale products and how demand will eventually drive the market.

Table of Contents

Micro- and Nanofabrication
1(32)
Mark J. Jackson
Introduction
1(2)
Microfabrication
3(10)
Nanofabrication
13(18)
Nanofabrication Using Soft Lithography
13(3)
Nanofabrication Using Manipulative Techniques
16(9)
Nanofabrication Using Carbon Nanomaterials
25(6)
Conclusion
31(1)
References
31(2)
Microfabrication Using X-Ray Lithography
33(26)
David W. L. Tolfree
Mark J. Jackson
Introduction
34(1)
X-Ray Lithography
35(1)
Synchrotron Radiation (SR)
35(3)
General Characteristics
35(2)
Spectral Characteristics
37(1)
Spectral Brilliance and Brightness
38(1)
Microfabrication Process
38(18)
General
38(1)
LIGA Process
38(2)
Lithography Steps
40(1)
X-Ray Lithography
40(1)
X-Ray Masks
40(2)
Mask Materials
42(2)
Single-Layer Absorber Fabrication
44(1)
Alignment of X-Ray Mask to Substrate
45(1)
Masks for High-Aspect Ratio Microlithography
46(1)
Choice of Resist Substrate
47(2)
Resist Requirements
49(1)
Methods of Resist Application
50(1)
Multiple Spin Coats
50(1)
Commercial PMMA Sheets
50(1)
Casting of PMMA
50(1)
Resist Adhesion
51(1)
Stress-Induced Cracks in PMMA
51(1)
Exposure
51(1)
Optimal Wavelength
51(2)
Deposited Dose
53(1)
Stepped and Slanted Microstructures
53(1)
Master Micromold Fabrication Methods
54(2)
Future Directions
56(1)
References
57(2)
Etching, Machining, and Molding High-Aspect Ratio Microstructures
59(28)
Mark J. Jackson
Grant M. Robinson
Introduction
60(1)
Dry Etching
60(1)
Plasma Etching Processes
60(1)
Ion Beam-Assisted Radical Etching
61(1)
Characteristics of the Plasma
61(1)
The Sheath Region
61(1)
Boundary Region
62(1)
Etching of Microstructures
62(6)
Etching Phenomena
63(1)
Inhibitor Depletion in a Trench
63(1)
Radical Depletion in a Trench
63(1)
Volume Transport
63(5)
Etching Disruption Mechanisms
68(1)
Effects of Etching
68(5)
Tilting
68(1)
Bowing
69(1)
Bottling
69(1)
TADTOP
70(1)
RIE Lag Due to Ions
71(1)
RIE Lag Due to Radical Depletion or Reflection
72(1)
Micrograss
72(1)
Micromachining High-Aspect Ratio Microstructures
73(1)
Micromolding
74(1)
Micromolding Processes
74(5)
Injection Molding
74(1)
Reaction Injection Molding
75(1)
Hot Embossing
75(2)
Injection Compression Molding
77(2)
Micromolding Tools
79(3)
Micromold Design
82(1)
Micromolding Applications
82(1)
Limitations of Micromolding
82(1)
Conclusions
82(1)
References
83(4)
The Size Effect in Micromachining
87(24)
Milton C. Shaw
Mark J. Jackson
Introduction
87(1)
Size Effects in Machining Processes
88(3)
Shear Angle Prediction
91(4)
Plastic Behavior at Large Strain
95(10)
Langford and Cohen's Model
96(2)
Walker and Shaw's Model
98(2)
Usui's Model
100(1)
Saw Tooth Chip Formation in Hard Turning
100(1)
Fluid-Like Flow in Metal Cutting Chip Formation
101(1)
Kececioglu's Models
102(2)
Zhang and Bagchi's Model
104(1)
Mechanism for Large Plastic Flow
105(2)
Inhomogeneous Strain
107(1)
Origin of the Size Effect
108(1)
References
109(2)
Mechanical Micromachining
111(32)
Mark J. Jackson
Sam B. McSpadden
Introduction
112(1)
Microfluidic Systems
112(2)
Theory of Micromachining
114(7)
Micromilling
114(3)
Initial Chip Curl Modeling
117(4)
Experimental Micromachining
121(3)
Micromachining Apparatus
121(1)
Observations on Chip Formation
121(3)
Micromachining Results
124(1)
Micromachining Tool Design
124(2)
High-Speed Air Turbine Spindles
126(4)
Fluid Flow Analysis
127(1)
Assumptions in the CFD Approach
127(1)
CFD Geometry Model
127(1)
Fluid Models
128(1)
Boundary Conditions
128(1)
Governing Equations
128(2)
Method of Solution
130(1)
Mechanical Design of High-Speed Rotors
130(9)
Basic Geometry of the Rotor
130(1)
Rotor with Fillet Surfaces
130(1)
Rotor with a 70° Blade Tip Angle
131(1)
Rotor with 90° Blade Tip Angle
131(2)
Rotor with Twelve Blades
133(1)
Housing with Inclined Inlets
133(2)
Rotor with Three Inlets and Three Outlets
135(1)
Two-Stage Rotor
135(1)
Flow Topology for Two-Stage Rotor
136(1)
Pressure Variation for the Two-Stage Rotor
137(1)
Flow Topology for Rotor with Three Inlets Inclined at 45°
137(1)
Pressure Variation on the Rotor with Three Inlets Inclined at 45°
137(1)
Pressure Coefficients for all Geometries
138(1)
Discussion
139(1)
Conclusions
140(1)
Future Developments
141(1)
References
141(2)
Precision Micro- and Nanogrinding
143(44)
Vellore C. Venkatesh
Sudin Izman
Mark J. Jackson
Introduction
143(4)
Grinding Wheel
147(9)
Bond Materials
148(1)
Abrasive Types
148(2)
Grit Size
150(1)
Grade
150(1)
Structure
151(1)
Concentration
151(1)
Grinding Wheel Design and Selection
152(3)
Mounted Wheels
155(1)
Conventional Grinding
156(4)
Precision Grinding Processes
160(11)
Upgrading of a Machining Center into Jig Grinding for IC Chip Manufacturing
160(2)
Novel Experimental Method to Find Critical Depth of Cut
162(1)
Precision Grinding with Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID)
162(2)
Partial Ductile Mode Grinding for Reduction of Polishing Time
164(2)
Aspheric Surface Generation
166(5)
Ultraprecision Grinding
171(11)
Various Ultraprecision Machines and Development
171(6)
Tetrahedral Desktop Machine Tool (Jackson's Model)
177(1)
Binderless Wheel
177(3)
Free-Form Optics
180(2)
Conclusion
182(1)
References
182(5)
CVD Diamond Technology for Microtools, NEMS, and MEMS Applications
187(34)
Waqar Ahmed
Htet Sein
Mark J. Jackson
Introduction
188(1)
Properties of Diamond
189(1)
Historical Perspective
189(3)
Early History of Diamond Synthesis
189(2)
Modern Era of Metastable Diamond Growth
191(1)
Development of CVD Technology
192(1)
Types of Diamond CVD Processes
193(3)
Plasma-Enhanced CVD
193(1)
RF Plasma-Enhanced CVD
193(1)
DC Plasma-Enhanced CVD
194(1)
Microwave Plasma-Enhanced CVD
194(1)
Hot Filament CVD (HFCVD)
194(1)
Advantages of the CVD Process
195(1)
Disadvantages of the CVD Process
195(1)
Substrate
196(3)
Selection of Substrate Material
196(1)
Substrate Pretreatment
196(1)
Pretreatment on Mo/Si Substrate
197(1)
Pretreatment on WC-Co Substrate
197(2)
Modified HFCVD Process
199(2)
Modification of Filament Assembly
199(1)
Process Conditions
200(1)
Diamond Nucleation and Growth
201(5)
Nucleation Stage
202(1)
Homoepitaxial Growth
202(1)
Heteroepitaxial Growth
202(1)
Bias-Enhanced Nucleation (BEN)
202(2)
Influence of Temperature
204(2)
Deposition of Diamond on Three-Dimensional Substrates
206(4)
Diamond Deposition on Metallic (Molybdenum) Wire
206(1)
Deposition on WC-Co Microdrill
207(2)
Diamond Deposition on Tungsten Carbide (WC-Co) Dental Bur
209(1)
Performance Studies
210(8)
Performance of Diamond-Coated Microdrill
213(1)
Performance of Diamond-Coated Dental Bur
214(4)
Conclusions
218(1)
References
219(2)
Laser-Based Micro- and Nanofabrication
221(28)
Mark J. Jackson
Grant M. Robinson
Introduction
221(1)
Laser Fundamentals
222(3)
Creation of Monochromatic Light
222(1)
Stimulated Emission
223(1)
Diode Lasers
224(1)
Excimer Lasers
225(1)
Ti:Sapphire Lasers
225(1)
Beam Characteristics
225(2)
Laser Optics
227(4)
Optical Quality
228(1)
Laser Material Interactions
228(3)
Laser Microfabrication
231(13)
Nanosecond Pulse Microfabrication
231(1)
Shielding Gas
231(1)
Stages of Surface Melting
232(1)
Effects of Nanosecond Pulsed Microfabrication
232(1)
Picosecond Pulse Microfabrication
233(7)
Femtosecond Pulse Microfabrication
240(4)
Laser Nanofabrication
244(2)
Conclusions
246(1)
References
247(2)
Pulsed Water Drop Micromachining
249(28)
Mark J. Jackson
Luke J. Hyde
Introduction
249(1)
Theory of Pulsed Liquid Impact
250(2)
Impact by Water Drops
252(1)
Circumferential Damage
252(1)
Lateral Jetting
253(1)
Modeling Machining Thresholds
253(7)
Machining Threshold Model
254(1)
Quasi-Static Stress Intensity
254(3)
Dynamic Stress Intensity Factor
257(1)
Simulation of Impact Machining
258(1)
Machining Threshold Curves
259(1)
Comparative Results
260(2)
Silicon
260(1)
Alumina
261(1)
Magnesium Fluoride
261(1)
Material Removal Rates
262(2)
Design of Water-Based Machine Tools
264(1)
Analysis of Space Frame
264(2)
Finite Element Model
265(1)
Closed-Form Solution Model
265(1)
Mode Shapes of Tetrahedral Structures
266(7)
Experimental Method
266(1)
Experimental Procedure
266(2)
Experimental Analysis
268(5)
Conclusion
273(1)
References
274(3)
Diamond Nanogrinding
277(34)
Mark J. Jackson
Luke J. Hyde
Grant M. Robinson
Introduction
278(1)
Piezoelectric Nanogrinding
278(1)
Stress Analysis in a Nanogrinding Grain
279(6)
Analysis of Loaded Nanogrinding Grains
279(6)
Fracture-Dominated Wear Model
285(1)
Nanogrinding
285(6)
Nanogrinding Apparatus
285(1)
Nanogrinding Procedure
285(3)
Stress Analysis
288(3)
Porous Nanogrinding Tools
291(6)
Dissolution Models for Quartz in Bonding Bridges
293(1)
Preparation of Bonding Bridges for Nanogrinding Wheels
294(2)
X-Ray Diffraction of Bonding Systems
296(1)
Refractory Bonding Systems---Verification and Comparison of Dissolution Models for Quartz
297(5)
Jander's Model
301(1)
Krause and Keetman's Model
301(1)
Monshi's Model
302(1)
Jackson and Mills' Model
302(1)
Fusible Bonding Systems---Verification and Comparison of Dissolution Models for Quartz
302(3)
Jander's Model
303(1)
Krause and Keetman's Model
304(1)
Monshi's Model
304(1)
Jackson and Mills' Model
304(1)
Laser Dressing of Nanogrinding Tools
305(2)
Future Directions
307(2)
Nomenclature
309(1)
References
310(1)
Nanometric Machining: Theory, Methods, and Implementation
311(28)
Kai Cheng
Xun Luo
Mark J. Jackson
Introduction
312(1)
Nanometric Machining and Its Application Promise
312(2)
Theoretical Basis of Nanometric Machining
314(9)
Cutting Force and Energy
314(2)
Cutting Temperature
316(2)
Chip Formation and Surface Generation
318(2)
Minimum Undeformed Chip Thickness
320(1)
Critical Cutting Edge Radius
321(1)
Properties of Workpiece Materials
322(1)
Comparison of Nanometric Machining and Conventional Machining
323(1)
Implementation of Nanometric Machining
323(12)
Ultraprecision Machine Tools
323(1)
Mechanical Structure
324(3)
Drives
327(1)
Control
328(1)
Metrology and Inspection System
328(1)
Cutting Tools
328(2)
Nanometrology
330(1)
Displacement and Position Measurement
331(1)
Surface Texture Measurement
331(1)
Form Measurement
331(1)
Surface Integrity Measurement
331(1)
Machining Process Variables
332(1)
Practical Nanometric Machining (Turning, Milling, and Grinding)
333(1)
Single-Point Diamond Turning
333(2)
Diamond Milling of Complex Molds
335(1)
Nanogrinding
335(1)
Conclusions
335(1)
Notation and Symbols
335(1)
References
336(3)
Nanocrystalline Diamond: Deposition Routes and Applications
339(20)
Nasar Ali
Juan Gracio
Mark J. Jackson
Waqar Ahmed
Introduction
339(2)
Nanocrystalline Diamond
341(8)
Why Nano?
341(1)
Deposition Routes
342(2)
Time-Modulated CVD
344(5)
Applications
349(4)
Heart Valves
349(1)
Dental Burs
350(1)
Hip Prostheses
351(1)
Microfluidic Devices
352(1)
Summary
353(1)
Acknowledgments
354(1)
References
354(5)
Commercialization Issues of Micro-Nano Technology
359(8)
David W. L. Tolfree
Introduction
359(1)
Commercialization Issues
360(1)
General
360(1)
Product-Market Interface
360(1)
Infrastructure for Commercialization
361(1)
Supply Chain Networks
362(1)
Product Manufacture
363(1)
Packaging, Testing, and Standardization
363(1)
Manufacturing Centers
363(2)
The UK-NMPC Proposal
364(1)
Micro- and Nanotechnology Markets
365(1)
References
365(2)
The Future of Micro- and Nanomanufacturing
367(22)
Mark J. Jackson
Introduction
367(1)
Micromanufacturing
367(9)
Electroplating
367(1)
Casting
368(1)
Molding
369(3)
Machining
372(3)
Future Developments in Micromanufacturing
375(1)
Nanomanufacturing
376(11)
Semiconductor Manufacturing
376(1)
Soft Lithographic Manufacturing
376(1)
Nanomanufacturing by Molding
376(3)
Nanoimprint Lithography
379(2)
Lithographically Induced Self-Assembly
381(4)
Dip Pen Nanomanufacturing
385(1)
Future Developments
385(2)
References
387(2)
Index 389

An electronic version of this book is available through VitalSource.

This book is viewable on PC, Mac, iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, and most smartphones.

By purchasing, you will be able to view this book online, as well as download it, for the chosen number of days.

A downloadable version of this book is available through the eCampus Reader or compatible Adobe readers.

Applications are available on iOS, Android, PC, Mac, and Windows Mobile platforms.

Please view the compatibility matrix prior to purchase.

Visa
Mastercard
American Express
Comodo
McAfee