Skip Navigation
List Price: $115.69

Buy Used

In Stock. Usually ships in 24 hours.
$82.45

Rent Textbook

Select for Price
Add to Cart Free Shipping
There was a problem. Please try again later.

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Political Thought,9780192892782

Political Thought

by ; ;
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 12/16/1999
Publisher(s): Oxford University Press

Summary

Human beings live together in societies which, by their very nature, give rise to institutions governing the behavior and freedom of individuals. This raises important questions about how these institutions ought to function, and the extent to which actual systems of government succeed or fail in meeting these ideals. This Oxford Reader contains 140 key writings on political thought, covering issues about human nature and its relation to society, the extent to which the powers of the State are justified, the tension between liberty and rights, and the way resources should be distributed. Topics such as international relations, minority rights, democracy, socialism, and conservatism are also discussed by contributors ranging from Plato and Aristotle to Foucault, Isaiah Berlin, and Martin Luther King.

Author Biography


Jonathan Wolff is Reader in Philosophy at University College London and author of An Introduction to Political Philosophy (OUP, 1996) and Robert Nozick (1991). Michael Rosen is a Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, coeditor of The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, and author of Hegel's Dialectic and its Criticism (OUP, 1982) and The Need for Interpretation (Abalone, 1987).

Table of Contents

Introduction 3(10)
I. Human Nature
Introduction
The Natural State of Mankind
10(1)
The State Exists by Nature
10(1)
Aristotle
The Misery of the Natural Condition of Mankind
11(3)
Thomas Hobbes
The State of Nature and the State of War
14(4)
John Locke
Fear and Peace
18(2)
Baron De Montesquieu
The Noble Savage
20(3)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Man's Character is Formed for Him
23(3)
Robert Owen
Man as a Productive Being
26(2)
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
Natural Selection
28(2)
Charles Darwin
The Advantage of Morality
30(1)
Charles Darwin
Mutual Aid
30(4)
Peter Kropotkin
Man's Nature and Woman's Nature
34(1)
Women as Weaker Partners
34(2)
Plato
Separate Spheres
36(1)
Aristotle
The Likeness and Unlikeness of the Sexes
37(2)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The Rights of Women
39(1)
Mary Wollstonecraft
The Subjection of Women
40(4)
John Stuart Mill
In a Different Voice
44(5)
Carol Gilligan
Socialist Feminism and the Standpoint of Women
49(5)
Alison M. Jaggar
II. The Justification of the State
Introduction
52(2)
What is the State?
54(1)
Political Power
54(1)
John Locke
The State and Coercion
54(2)
Max Weber
The Social Contract
56(1)
Creating Leviathan
56(3)
Thomas Hobbes
Express and Tacit Consent
59(3)
John Locke
Natural Freedom and the Freedom of the Citizen
62(2)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The Hypothetical Contract
64(2)
Immanuel Kant
Against the Social Contract
66(1)
The Irrelevance of Consent
66(3)
David Hume
Utility as the True Foundation
69(1)
Jeremy Bentham
The Priority of the State over the Individual
70(1)
G. W. F. Hegel
The Principle of Fairness
71(2)
H. L. A. Hart
The Anarchist Response
73(1)
Science and the People
73(3)
Michael Bakunin
The Conflict of Autonomy and Authority
76(2)
Robert Paul Wolef
Civil Disobedience
78(1)
The Duty of Obedience
78(3)
Plato
The Duty of Disobedience
81(2)
Henry David Thoreau
An Unjust Law is No Law
83(2)
Martin Luther King
Civil Disobedience
85(6)
John Rawls
III. Democracy and Its Difficulties
Introduction
89(2)
Against Democracy
91(1)
Ruling as a Skill
91(3)
Plato
The Englightened Despot
94(2)
Frederick The Great
Democratic Ideals
96(1)
The General Will
96(1)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Freedom and Equality
97(2)
Immanuel Kant
The Democratic Citizen
99(1)
John Stuart Mill
Majority Rule
100(3)
John Rawls
True and False Democracy
103(1)
Bourgeois and Proletarian Democracy
103(1)
V. I. Lenin
Participatory Democracy
104(2)
Carole Pateman
Dangers in Democracy
106(1)
Rule of the People and Rule of Law
106(1)
Aristotle
The Danger of Faction
107(2)
James Madison
Tyranny of the Majority
109(2)
Alexis De Tocqueville
Democracy and Bureaucracy
111(1)
Bureaucratic Administration
111(2)
Max Weber
Rule by Oligarchy
113(2)
Vilfredo Pareto
Separation of Powers
115(1)
Legislative, Executive, and Federative Powers
115(2)
John Locke
The Ideal Constitution
117(5)
Baron De Montesquieu
IV. Liberty and Rights
Introduction
119(3)
What is Liberty?
122(1)
The Liberty of the Ancients and the Liberty of the Moderns
122(2)
Benjamin Constant
Two Concepts of Liberty
124(4)
Isaiah Berlin
In Defence of Positive Freedom
128(2)
Charles Taylor
No Right to Liberty
130(3)
Ronald Dworkin
Law and Morality
133(1)
One Simple Principle
133(1)
John Stuart Mill
The Consequences of Liberty
134(3)
James Fitzjames Stephen
The Enforcement of Morals
137(3)
Partrick Devlin
The Changing Sense of Morality
140(2)
H. L. A. Hart
Toleration and Free Expression
142(1)
The Futility of Intolerance
142(3)
John Locke
Free Expression and the Authority of the State
145(3)
Thomas Scanlon
The Satanic Verses
148(3)
Jeremy Waldron
Only Words
151(4)
Catherine Mackinnon
Virtue and Citizenship
155(1)
The Democratic Citizen
155(1)
Pericles
The Requirements of Citizenship
156(2)
Aristotle
The Servility of the Moderns
158(1)
Niccolo Machiavelli
The Nature of Modern Servitude
159(2)
Alexis De Tocqueville
The Republican Ideal of Political Liberty
161(11)
Quentin Skinner
Rights
172(1)
Nonsense on Stilts
172(1)
Jeremy Bentham
The Rights of Egoistic Man
173(3)
Karl Marx
Rights as Side-Constraints
176(3)
Robert Nozick
Taking Rights Seriously
179(2)
Ronald Dworkin
Punishment
181(1)
In Favour of Capital Punishment
181(1)
John Stuart Mill
Punishment and Responsibility
182(2)
H. L. A. Hart
Where Deterrence Theory Goes Wrong
184(6)
Robert Nozick
V. Economic Justice
Introduction
187(3)
Private Property
190(1)
Labour as the Basis of Property
190(4)
John Locke
The Earth Belongs to Nobody
194(1)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Property as Expression
194(5)
G. W. F. Hegel
The Right to the Use of the Earth
199(3)
Herbert Spencer
Money, the Universal Whore
202(4)
Karl Marx
The True Foundation of Private Property
206(1)
Karl Marx
Property and Aggression
207(1)
Sigmund Freud
Reaping without Sowing
208(2)
R. H. Tawney
Difficulties with Mixing Labour
210(4)
Robert Nozick
The Market
214(1)
The Dangers of Government Interference
214(1)
Adam Smith
Appearance and Reality
215(1)
Karl Marx
Prices as a Code
216(2)
F. A. Hayek
The Tyranny of Controls
218(4)
Milton Friedman
Rose Friedman
Poverty as Lack of Freedom
222(2)
G. A. Cohen
Theories of Distributive Justice
224(1)
The Grasshopper and the Ants
224(1)
Aesop
Reciprocity
224(2)
Aristotle
Equality and Inequality
226(1)
Aristotle
The Common Stock
227(2)
Gerald Winstanley
The Impossibility of Equality
229(2)
David Hume
From Each According to His Abilities, To Each According to His Needs
231(2)
Karl Marx
Looking Backward
233(5)
Edward Bellamy
The Impossibility of Planning
238(3)
F. A. Hayek
Two Principles of Justice
241(4)
John Rawls
The Entitlement Theory
245(3)
Robert Nozick
Equality of Resources
248(9)
Ronald Dworkin
VI. Justice between Groups
Introduction
256(1)
Peace and War
257(1)
Perpetual Peace
257(2)
Immanuel Kant
The Civilizing Influence of Commerce
259(1)
Richard Cobden
Just and Unjust War
260(3)
Michael Walzer
The Limits of Warfare
263(4)
Thomas Nagel
Nationalism
267(1)
National Sentiment
267(2)
Isaiah Berlin
Is Patriotism a Virtue?
269(16)
Alasdair Macintyre
Minority Rights
285(1)
The Message of Affirmative Action
285(3)
Thomas Hill
National Self-Determination
288(4)
Avishai Margalit
Joseph Raz
Intergenerational Justice
292(1)
Justice between Generations
292(8)
Brian Barry
International Justice
300(1)
Famine, Affluence and Morality
300(4)
Peter Singer
Lifeboat Earth
304(17)
Onora O'nell
VII. Alternatives to Liberalism
Introduction
319(2)
Liberal Theory under Strain
321(1)
Legitimation Crisis
321(2)
Jorgen Habermas
Liberalism in Retreat
323(1)
Michael Walzer
The Artificiality of Liberalism
324(2)
Michael Walzer
Conservatism
326(1)
Eternal Society
326(2)
Edmund Burke
The Transmission of Culture
328(3)
T. S. Eliot
On Being Conservative
331(4)
Michael Oakeshott
Communitarianism
335(1)
Identification and Subjectivity
335(3)
Charles Taylor
Tradition and the Unity of a Life
338(4)
Alasdair Macintyre
Conceptions of Community
342(3)
Michael Sandel
Socialism
345(1)
Work in Communist Society
345(1)
Karl Marx
The Communist Manifesto
345(3)
Karl Marx
The Realm of Freedom
348(1)
Karl Marx
The Soul of Man under Socialism
348(3)
Oscar Wilde
Productive Activity
351(3)
Ernest Mandel
Socialism and Equality of Opportunity
354(5)
G. A. Cohen
Post-modernism
359(1)
The Impulse towards Justice
359(1)
Friedrich Nietzsche
Power/Knowledge
360(2)
Michel Foucault
The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy
362(5)
Richard Rorty
VIII. Progress and Civilization
Introduction
366(1)
The Effect of the Arts and Sciences
367(2)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Division of Labour
369(2)
Adam Smith
Fragmentation and Aesthetic Education
371(5)
Friedrich Schiller
Development of the Productive Forces
376(2)
Karl Marx
Our Self-Destructive Impulse
378(2)
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Transition to Communism
380(3)
Friedrich Engels
Disenchantment
383(2)
Max Weber
The Utopian Method
385(2)
Karl Popper
The End of History
387(4)
Francis Fukuyama
Appendix: Fundamental Political Documents
US Declaration of Independence (1776)
391(3)
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)
394(2)
The Bill of Rights (1789)
396(1)
The Gettysburg Address (1863)
397(1)
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
398(5)
Notes 403(4)
Select Bibliography 407(1)
Biographical Notes 407(12)
Source Acknowledgements 419(6)
Index 425

An electronic version of this book is available through VitalSource.

This book is viewable on PC, Mac, iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, and most smartphones.

By purchasing, you will be able to view this book online, as well as download it, for the chosen number of days.

A downloadable version of this book is available through the eCampus Reader or compatible Adobe readers.

Applications are available on iOS, Android, PC, Mac, and Windows Mobile platforms.

Please view the compatibility matrix prior to purchase.

Visa
Mastercard
American Express
Comodo
McAfee