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Readings on Human Nature,9781551111568

Readings on Human Nature

by
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 10/1/1997
Publisher(s): Broadview Pr
Availability: This title is currently not available.

Summary

This anthology brings together 45 selections by a wide range of philosophers and other thinkers, and provides a representative sampling of the approaches to the study of human nature that have been taken within the western tradition.The selections range in time from the ancient Greeks to the 1990s, and in political orientation from the conservative individualism of Ayn Rand to the liberalism of John Rawls. Classic writings from the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries are here (Descartes, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Rousseau, and so on), but so are a wide range of twentieth-century writings, including a number of feminist voices, the biological theory of Edward O. Wilson, and the cultural materialist theory of Marvin Harris. A substantial selection of Christian views of human nature is a central part of the anthology.The anthology is as notable for its depth as it is for its breadth; an important editorial principle has been to include a variety of substantial selections, thus allowing the reader to engage more readily with some of the complexities of each approach.

Table of Contents

Introduction
I ANCIENT AND EARLY MODERN VIEWS OF HUMAN NATURE 3(32)
Plato
1. Republic
3(9)
Aristotle
2. Nicomachean Ethics
12(12)
Aristotle
Politics
18(6)
Rene Descartes
3. Principles of Philosophy
24(3)
Francois de La Rochefoucauld
4. Maxims
27(3)
Earl of Rochester
5. A Satyre Against Mankind
30(5)
II CHRISTIAN VIEWS OF HUMAN NATURE 35(86)
St. Augustine
6. Confessions
35(21)
St. Augustine
On Free Choice of the Will
51(5)
St. Thomas Aquinas
7. On the Virtues in General
56(7)
St. Thomas Aquinas
On Free Choice
60(3)
Martin Luther
8. The Freedom of a Christian
63(14)
John Locke
9. The Reasonableness of Christianity
77(7)
John Locke
The Second Treatise of (civil) Government
78(1)
John Locke
A Letter Concerning Toleration
79(5)
Joseph Butler
10. Fifteen Sermons
84(15)
Immanuel Kant
11. Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone
99(15)
Dietrich Bonhoeffer
12. A Testament to Freedom
114(7)
III LIBERALISM 121(48)
Immanuel Kant
13. An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?
121(4)
Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet
14. Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind
125(4)
Wilhelm von Humboldt
15. The Limits of State Action
129(10)
J.S. Mill
16. On Liberty
139(11)
J.S. Mill
Utilitarianism
148(2)
L.T. Hobhouse
17. Liberalism
150(11)
John Rawls
18. Political Liberalism
161(8)
IV CONSERVATIVE INDIVIDUALISM 169(50)
Niccolo Machiavelli
19. The Prince
169(4)
Thomas Hobbes
20. Leviathan
173(4)
James Boswell
21. The Life of Dr. Johnson
177(4)
James Boswell
Samuel Johnson, The Rambler
178(2)
James Boswell
The Idler
180(1)
Simone Weil
22. The Need for Roots
181(15)
Ayn Rand
23. For the New Intellectual
196(6)
Michael Oakeshott
24. Rationalism in Politics
202(17)
V DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF HUMAN NATURE 219(66)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
25. Discourse on the Origins of Inequality
219(22)
G.W.F. Hegel
26. Phenomenology of Mind
241(24)
G.W.F. Hegel
Philosophy of Right
246(19)
Karl Marx
27. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
265(12)
Karl Marx
Thesis on Feuerbach
269(1)
Karl Marx
The German Ideology
270(7)
Friedrich Nietzsche
28. On the Genealogy of Morals
277(8)
VI BIOLOGICAL THEORIES 285(58)
Charles Darwin
29. The Descent of Man
285(30)
Edward O. Wilson
30. On Human Nature
315(28)
VII FREUD 343(22)
Sigmund Freud
31 Character and Culture
343(22)
Sigmund Freud
Civilization and its Discontents
353(12)
VIII BEHAVIORISM AND NON-SELF THEORIES 365(56)
David Hume
32. A Treatise of Human Nature
365(13)
Julien de La Mettrie
33. Man a Machine
378(7)
J.B. Watson
34. The Ways of Behaviorism
385(14)
J.B. Watson
Behaviorism
390(9)
Margaret A. Boden
35. Artificial Intelligence in Psychology
399(8)
Daniel C. Dennett
36. Consciousness Explained
407(14)
IX FEMINISM 421(66)
Mary Wollstonecraft
37. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
421(24)
Simone de Beauvoir
38. The Second Sex
445(7)
Juliet Mitchell
39. Psychoanalysis and Feminism
452(14)
Juliet Mitchell
Women: the Longest Revolution
460(6)
Carol Gilligan
40. In a Different Voice
466(10)
Katha Pollitt
41. "Marooned on Gilligan's Island: Are Women Morally Superior to Men?"
476(11)
X SOME CONTRARY VOICES 487(30)
Jean-Paul Sartre
42. Existentialism and Humanism
487(3)
Camille Paglia
43. Sexual Personae
490(27)
XI TWENTIETH-CENTURY VIEWS IN SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 517
Ferdinand Tonnies
44. Community and Society
517(15)
Marvin Harris
45. Cultural Materialism
532
Marvin Harris
Our Kind
549

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