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Semantics in Generative Grammar,9780631197133

Semantics in Generative Grammar

by ;
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 1/2/1998
Publisher(s): Wiley
Availability: This title is currently not available.

Summary

Written by two of the leading figures in the field, this is a lucid and systematic introduction to semantics as applied to transformational grammars of the Government-Binding model. It covers the fundamental constructions thoroughly with analyses, but goes well beyond that core, providing extensive discussion of quantification, binding and anaphora, and ellipsis. With exercises and guides to further reading, the volume will be a key text for graduate level and advanced undergraduate introductory courses in semantics.

Author Biography

Irene Heim is Professor of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is the author of The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases (1987) and, with Angelika Kratzer, is Founder and Editor of Natural Language Semantics.

Angelika Kratzer is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and, with Irene Heim, is Founder and Editor of Natural Language Semantics.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Truth-conditional Semantics and the Fregean Program
1(12)
Truth-conditional semantics
1(1)
Frege on compositionality
2(1)
Tutorial on sets and functions
3(10)
Sets
4(1)
Questions and answers about the abstraction notation for sets
5(5)
Functions
10(3)
Executing the Fregean Program
13(30)
First example of a Fregean interpretation
13(11)
Applying the semantics to an example
16(4)
Deriving truth-conditions in an extensional semantics
20(2)
Object language and metalanguage
22(2)
Sets and their characteristic functions
24(2)
Adding transitive verbs: semantics types and denotation domains
26(3)
Schonfinkelization
29(5)
Defining functions in the λ-notation
34(9)
Semantics and Syntax
43(18)
Type-driven interpretation
43(2)
The structure of the input to semantic interpretation
45(2)
Well-formedness and interpretability
47(2)
The Θ-Criterion
49(4)
Argument structure and linking
53(8)
More of English: Nonverbal Predicates, Modifiers, Definite Descriptions
61(25)
Semantically vacuous words
61(1)
Nonverbal predicates
62(1)
Predicates as restrictive modifiers
63(10)
A new composition rule
65(1)
Modification as functional application
66(2)
Evidence from nonintersective adjectives?
68(5)
The definite article
73(9)
A lexical entry inspired by Frege
73(2)
Partial denotations and the distinction between presupposition and assertion
75(5)
Uniqueness and utterance context
80(1)
Presupposition failure versus uninterpretability
81(1)
Modifiers in definite descriptions
82(4)
Relative Clauses, Variables, Variable Binding
86(45)
Relative clauses as predicates
86(3)
Semantic composition inside the relative clause
89(17)
Does the trace pick up a referent?
90(2)
Variables
92(4)
Predicate abstraction
96(3)
A note on proof strategy: bottom up or top down?
99(7)
Multiple variables
106(9)
Adding ``such that'' relatives
106(2)
A problem with nested relatives
108(1)
Amending the syntax: co-indexing
109(1)
Amending the semantics
110(5)
What is variable binding?
115(8)
Some semantic definitions
116(4)
Some theorems
120(1)
Methodological remarks
121(2)
Interpretability and syntactic constraints on indexing
123(8)
Quantifiers: Their Semantic Type
131(47)
Problems with individuals as DP-denotations
131(7)
Predictions about truth-conditions and entailment patterns
132(3)
Predictions about ambiguity and the effects of syntactic reorganization
135(3)
Problems with having DPs denote sets of individuals
138(2)
The solution: generalized quantifiers
140(5)
``Something'', ``nothing'', ``everything''
140(2)
Problems avoided
142(3)
Quantifying determiners
145(2)
Quantifier meanings and relations between sets
147(4)
A little history
147(2)
Relational and Schonfinkeled denotations for determiners
149(2)
Formal properties of relational determiner meanings
151(2)
Presuppositional quantifier phrases
153(6)
``Both'' and ``neither''
154(1)
Presuppositionality and the relational theory
154(3)
Other examples of presupposing DPs
157(2)
Presuppositional quantifier phrases; controversial cases
159(19)
Strawson's reconstruction of Aristotelian logic
159(3)
Are all determiners presuppositional?
162(3)
Nonextensional interpretation
165(5)
Nonpresuppositional behavior in weak determiners
170(8)
Quantification and Grammer
178(31)
The problem of quantifiers in object position
178(1)
Repairing the type mismatch in situ
179(5)
An example of a ``flexible types'' approach
180(2)
Excursion: quantifiers in natural language and predicate logic
182(2)
Repairing the type mismatch by movement
184(5)
Excursion: quantifiers in natural language and predicate logic
189(4)
Separating quantifiers from variable binding
189(1)
1-place and 2-place quantifiers
190(3)
Choosing between quantifier movement and in situ interpretation: three standard arguments
193(16)
Scope ambiguity and ``inverse'' scope
194(4)
Anteccedent-contained deletion
198(2)
Quantifiers that bind pronouns
200(9)
Syntactic and Semantic Constraints on Quantifier Movement
209(30)
Which DPs may move, and which one must?
210(2)
How much moves along? And how far can you move?
212(2)
What are potential landing sites for moving quantifiers?
214(1)
Quantifying into VP
215(6)
Quantifiers taking narrow scope with respect to auxiliary negation
215(2)
Quantifying into VP, VP-internal subjects, and flexible types
217(4)
Quantifying into PP, AP, and NP
221(9)
A problem of undergeneration
221(4)
PP-internal subjects
225(3)
Subjects in all lexically headed XPs?
228(2)
Quantifying into DP
230(9)
Readings that can only be represented by DP adjunction?
232(1)
Indirect evidence for DP adjunction: a problem with free IP adjunction?
233(1)
Summary
234(5)
Bound and Referential Pronouns and Ellipsis
239(21)
Referential pronouns as free variables
239(6)
Deictic versus anaphoric, referential versus bound-variable pronouns
239(3)
Utterance contexts and variable assignments
242(3)
Co-references or binding?
245(3)
Pronouns in the theory of ellipsis
248(12)
Background: the LF Identity Condition on ellipsis
248(4)
Referential pronouns and ellipsis
252(2)
The ``sloppy identity'' puzzle and its solution
254(6)
Syntactic and Semantic Binding
260(17)
Indexing and Surface Structure binding
260(2)
Syntactic binding, semantic binding, and the Binding Principle
262(3)
Weak Crossover
265(1)
The Binding Principle and strict and sloppy identity
266(3)
Syntactic constraints on co-reference?
269(5)
Summary
274(3)
E-Type Anaphora
277(22)
Review of some predictions
277(3)
Referential pronouns with quantifier antecedents
280(6)
Pronouns that are neither bound variables nor referential
286(2)
Paraphrases with definite descriptions
288(2)
Cooper's analysis of E-Type pronouns
290(3)
Some applications
293(6)
First Steps Towards as Intensional Semantics
299(14)
Where the extensional semantics breaks down
299(2)
What to do: intensions
301(2)
An intensional semantics
303(7)
Limitations and prospects
310(3)
Index 313

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