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Spanish/English Contrasts,9780878403813

Spanish/English Contrasts

by
Edition: 2nd
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 8/1/2002
Publisher(s): Georgetown Univ Pr

Summary

A one-volume description of the Spanish language and its differences from English, ranging from pronunciation and grammar to word meaning, language use, and social and dialectical variation.

Author Biography

M. Stanley Whitley is professor of Spanish and linguistics at Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem. N.C.

Table of Contents

Preface to the second edition xiii
General introduction: Language and interlanguage
1(8)
Language, lects, and linguistics
1(1)
Comparing and contrasting languages
2(4)
Correspondences between languages
3(1)
Implications of the correspondences
3(3)
Interlanguage and sources of problems
6(2)
The limits of linguistics in language teaching
8(1)
Part One: Phonology 9(74)
Introduction to phonology
11(9)
Phonology vs. orthography
11(1)
Review of phonetics
12(4)
Classes of sounds
12(1)
Voicing
12(1)
Place and manner of articulation
13(1)
Vowels
14(2)
Features
16(1)
Phonemes, allophones, and rules
16(2)
Phonemes and examples
18(2)
Phonemes
20(22)
Comparing systems
20(1)
Consonants
20(8)
General comparison of consonant systems
20(1)
Consonants with different articulations: /t d/
20(2)
Unshared consonants
22(1)
The ene /n/
22(1)
The jota /x/
23(1)
The flap and trill /r r/
23(2)
Dialect variations
25(1)
Lleismo vs. yeismo
26(1)
Distincion, seseo, ceceo, ceseo: /s θ/
26(2)
Vowels and diphthongs
28(4)
Two vowel systems
29(1)
Diphthongs
29(1)
Hiatus, syneresis, and the analysis of glides
30(2)
Linking (liaison, enlace)
32(1)
The combining of phonemes into syllables and words
32(3)
Phonemic vs. orthographic representation
35(7)
Notes for chapter 2
37(1)
Exercises for chapter 2
38(4)
Phonological rules
42(26)
Types of rules: Categorical and variable, general and dialectal
42(2)
Spanish rules
44(12)
Glide strengthening
44(2)
Nasal assimilation
46(1)
Lateral assimilation
47(1)
S-Voicing
47(1)
S-Aspiration
47(3)
Spirantization of /b d g/
50(1)
D-Deletion (or Fricative deletion)
51(1)
Other consonantal processes: /x n l r r t∫ f/
52(2)
Vowel weakening
54(1)
Vowel gliding
54(2)
English rules
56(5)
Aspiration
56(1)
Preglottalization
57(1)
Flapping
57(1)
Palatalization before Yod
58(1)
L-Velarization
58(1)
Diphthongization
59(1)
Vowel reduction
60(1)
Schwa deletion
61(1)
Order of difficulty: Ranking phonological problems
61(7)
Notes for chapter 3
63(1)
Exercises for chapter 3
64(4)
Stress and intonation
68(15)
Suprasegmentals
68(1)
Stress
68(6)
Stress position
69(1)
Degrees of stress
70(1)
Stress and rhythm
71(3)
Intonation
74(9)
Notes for chapter 4
78(1)
Exercises for chapter 4
78(5)
Part Two: Grammar 83(208)
Basic notions of grammatical description
85(6)
The grammar of language
85(1)
Morphology: Morphemes, allomorphs, and rules
85(1)
Syntax: Word order, constituency, and function
86(3)
Grammaticality
89(2)
Verb morphology
91(19)
Verb forms and their nomenclature
91(2)
Spanish finite verb forms
93(7)
Endings as slots for morphemes
93(1)
Stem changes: Regular or irregular?
94(1)
Orthographic changes
95(1)
Morphophonemic changes
96(3)
Other changes
99(1)
English finite verb forms and modals
100(1)
Nonfinites and compound forms
101(3)
Infinitives
101(1)
Gerunds and participles
101(2)
``Absolutes''
103(1)
Perfects, progressives, passives
104(1)
Verb + verb and auxiliaries
104(6)
Notes for chapter 6
106(1)
Exercises for chapter 6
107(3)
Tense and mood
110(29)
Approaches to tense and mood
110(1)
The tense system of Spanish and English
110(11)
Systemic meanings
110(1)
Present perfect, present, future
111(1)
Past perfect, past, conditional
111(1)
Future perfect and conditional perfect
112(1)
Summary of the tense system
112(2)
Nonsystemic extensions: Present, future, conditional
114(1)
Aspect and tense: Preterite and imperfect
115(6)
The contributions of auxiliaries
121(3)
Meanings of modals
121(1)
``Secondary'' modifications: Perfect and progressive
122(2)
Mood: Indicative vs. subjunctive
124(15)
The tense system in the subjunctive
125(1)
The meaning of mood: Theories and approaches
126(1)
The subjunctive as a set of uses
126(1)
The subjunctive as a marker of meaning
127(5)
Summary of mood usage
132(2)
Notes for chapter 7
134(2)
Exercises for chapter 7
136(3)
Noun phrase syntax and morphology
139(29)
Nouns and noun phrases
139(1)
Functions of noun phrases with verbs
139(6)
Subject and direct object
139(2)
Indirect object: The involved entity
141(1)
Variation between direct and indirect objects
142(1)
Different construction, ``reverse'' construction
143(2)
Noun morphology
145(7)
Number and the count/mass distinction
145(3)
Gender
148(4)
Modifiers in the noun phrase
152(7)
Noun phrase constituents
152(1)
Possession and other noun-to-noun relationships
153(3)
Articles, demonstratives, and other determiners
156(2)
Adjectives and agreement
158(1)
NP without N
159(9)
Nominalization and pronominalization
160(2)
The Spanish neuter
162(1)
Notes for chapter 8
163(2)
Exercises for chapter 8
165(3)
Pronouns
168(25)
Pronouns as proforms
168(1)
Nonreflexive pronouns
168(2)
Person
169(1)
Gender
169(1)
Case
170(1)
Variation in the pronoun system
170(3)
Reflexives
173(11)
Pseudo-reflexive or ``spurious'' se
174(1)
True reflexive se
174(1)
Reciprocal se
175(1)
Lexical or inherent se
176(1)
Meaning-changing and/or inchoative se
176(1)
Intransitivizing se
177(3)
Reflexive se of emotional reaction
180(1)
Causative se
180(1)
Passive and impersonal se
181(2)
So-called ``unplanned occurrences''
183(1)
Summary
184(1)
The syntax of pronouns
184(9)
Pronominalizing with clitics
184(2)
Sequences of clitics
186(2)
Notes for chapter 9
188(1)
Exercises for chapter 9
189(4)
Adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions
193(21)
The uninflected words
193(1)
Lexical relationships
194(1)
Analysis and classification
195(6)
Classification by meaning and formation
196(1)
Adverbs
197(1)
Prepositions
197(1)
Conjunctions
198(1)
Classification by position and function: The adverbial phrase
199(2)
Semantic problems
201(5)
`But'
202(1)
`So'
202(1)
`To, in, from'
202(2)
`For' and `by'
204(2)
Abstract relationships
206(1)
Lexically or grammatically fixed usage
206(2)
Relators that introduce adverbial idioms
206(1)
Relators that are functors
207(1)
More on the verb connection: Particles and direction/manner
208(6)
Notes for chapter 10
210(1)
Exercises for chapter 10
211(3)
Word order and constituency
214(28)
Rules of syntax
214(1)
Phrase structure rules
214(6)
Sentences
214(1)
Phrases
215(3)
NP complements and appositives
218(1)
Summary
219(1)
From deep to surface structure
220(6)
The nucleus
220(1)
Satellites
221(1)
Transposed satellites and ``personal'' a
221(5)
The meaning of Spanish word order
226(16)
Nucleus with satellites
226(4)
Nouns with determiners and quantifiers
230(1)
Nouns with adjectives
230(6)
Summary and generalization
236(1)
Notes for chapter 11
237(1)
Exercises for chapter 11
238(4)
Questions, negations, passives, and commands
242(17)
Simple affirmative active declarative sentences
242(1)
Questions
242(5)
Tag and yes/no questions
243(1)
Information (Wh-) questions
244(3)
Negating and disagreeing
247(3)
Passive and related structures
250(3)
Commands
253(6)
Notes for chapter 12
255(1)
Exercises for chapter 12
256(3)
Complex sentences
259(32)
Compound vs. complex sentences
259(2)
Types of embedded clauses
259(2)
Reduced clauses
261(1)
Noun clauses
261(11)
As subjects
261(3)
As objects
264(1)
With creer vs. believe
264(2)
With decir vs. say/tell
266(1)
With preferir, querer, intentar vs. prefer, want, try
266(1)
With mandar and impedir vs. order and prevent
267(1)
With hacer vs. make, have
268(1)
With ver vs. see
269(1)
Querer + V vs. poder + V
270(1)
Clitic promotion
271(1)
Noun clauses that are questions
272(1)
Adverbial clauses
272(3)
Preposition + clause
272(1)
Subordinating conjunction + clause
273(2)
Relative clauses
275(6)
Relativization according to NP type
276(2)
Headless relatives and clefting
278(1)
Nonrestrictive relative clauses
279(1)
Reduced relative clauses
280(1)
Comparative sentences
281(4)
Patterns and forms
282(1)
The structure of comparative sentences
283(2)
Complex sentences: General summary
285(6)
Notes for chapter 13
286(1)
Exercises for chapter 13
287(4)
Part Three: Beyond grammar 291(67)
Introduction to the study of words and usage
293(5)
What it means to know a word
293(1)
An example: The meaning of compadre
293(2)
The ranges of usage and meaning
295(3)
Words and their meanings
298(27)
The lexicon
298(1)
Derivational morphology
299(6)
Affixes
299(3)
Compounding
302(1)
Shortening: Clipping and acronyms
303(1)
Morphophonemics: Phonology in the lexicon
304(1)
Cognates: True friends, or false?
305(2)
Dialect differences in vocabulary
307(2)
Different lexicons, different meanings
309(8)
Differences in denotation and connotation
309(3)
Verbs of being: Ser vs. estar
312(5)
Idioms
317(8)
Notes for chapter 15
319(1)
Exercises for chapter 15
320(5)
Language knowledge and language use
325(33)
Linguistic and communicative competence
325(1)
The pragmatics of the speaker-hearer relation
326(8)
Address and reference, and tu vs. usted
326(3)
Style, style shifting, stylistics
329(2)
Words of group identity: Argot and slang
331(1)
Speaking strategies: Politeness and genderlect
332(2)
Proverbs and other cultural allusions
334(1)
Communicative functions in discourse
335(12)
Grammar in discourse
336(1)
Accuracy and function in proficiency development
337(3)
Discourse organization
340(2)
Speech acts and their verbal lubricants
342(5)
Aptitude and attitude in language learning and use
347(11)
Notes for chapter 16
353(1)
Exercises for chapter 16
353(5)
Appendices 358(1)
1 English/Spanish glossary of linguistic terminology
358(5)
2 Phonological index
363
References 357(26)
General index 383

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