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Streets and the Shaping of Towns and Cities,9781559639163

Streets and the Shaping of Towns and Cities

by ;
Edition: Reprint
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 6/27/2003
Publisher(s): Island Pr

Summary

The topic of streets and street design is of compelling interest today as public officials, developers, and community activists seek to reshape urban patterns to achieve more sustainable forms of growth and development. Streets and the Shaping of Towns and Citiestraces ideas about street design and layout back to the early industrial era in London suburbs and then on through their institutionalization in housing and transportation planning in the United States. It critiques the situation we are in and suggests some ways out that are less rigidly controlled, more flexible, and responsive to local conditions.Originally published in 1997, this edition includes a new introduction that addresses topics of current interest including revised standards from the Institute of Transportation Engineers; changes in city plans and development standards following New Urbanist, Smart Growth, and sustainability principles; traffic calming; and ecologically oriented street design. "

Author Biography

Eran Ben-Joseph is assistant professor of landscape architecture and planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Introduction: Street Standards and the Built Environmentp. 1
The Power of Street Standardsp. 3
The Social and Environmental Impacts of Street Standardsp. 5
Trends in Street Design and Regulationp. 7
About This Bookp. 14
Gritty Cities and Picturesque Villages: The Origins of Suburban Design Standards in England and the United Statesp. 17
A Brief Look at Street Design Standards of Antiquityp. 17
The First Suburbs in Englandp. 28
John Nash and Park Villagep. 29
Olmsted, Vaux, and the American Suburbp. 33
Orderly Streets for Healthy Cities: Social Response to Urban Disorderp. 43
The "Bye-law" Streetp. 45
Bedford Park Adapts the Bye-law Streetp. 47
Unwin, Parker, and the Garden Citiesp. 50
Charles Mulford Robinson and the Street as a Work of Artp. 56
Streets for the Motor Age: The Car and the Urban Scenep. 61
Movements for Road and Street Improvementp. 61
The Car in the Early 1900sp. 64
Early Responses to the Automobilep. 65
The Rise of Comprehensive Planningp. 66
Stein, Wright, and Radburnp. 70
Perry, Adams, and the Neighborhood Unitp. 76
European Modernism and the Vision for New Streetsp. 79
The Asphalt Pathp. 83
The Institute of Transportation Engineers Is Bornp. 83
Bureaucracy Takes Control: The Institutionalization of Standardsp. 85
The President's Conference on Home Building and Home Ownershipp. 85
Adoption of Neighborhood Unit and Garden City Principlesp. 88
Street Regulations Take Rootp. 89
The Federal Housing Administration Promotes Suburbanizationp. 90
FHA's First Standardsp. 91
Standards Establish the Cul-de-sac Patternp. 92
Controlling Subdivision through Local Plat Approvalp. 96
The Influence of the Building Industry on Street Designp. 97
Accidents and Gridsp. 100
Streets for Living: Rethinking Neighborhood Streetsp. 105
Learning from Traditional Street Patternsp. 105
Kentlandsp. 106
Laguna Westp. 108
Elmwood: A Traditional Streetcar Suburbp. 109
Neotraditional Street Design and Patternp. 111
Comparing Street Patternsp. 113
Pedestrian Accessp. 115
The Shared Street Conceptp. 117
Design Characteristics of Shared Streetsp. 122
The Social Benefitsp. 124
Safetyp. 125
Prospects for Shared Streets in Suburbiap. 126
The Case for Cul-de-sacsp. 128
Walkable Suburbs?p. 137
Tomorrow's Streets: Toward New Neighborhood Street Standardsp. 139
Liability Concerns in Reevaluating Standardsp. 140
Local Controls and Design Initiativesp. 141
Semiprivate Streets for Flexibilityp. 144
Performance Standards Versus Specificationsp. 146
The Limitations of Flexible Planningp. 149
Some Design Criteria for Better Residential Street Standardsp. 150
Looking at Community Street Standardsp. 154
The Work Aheadp. 155
Chronology of Events in the Development of Residential Street Standardsp. 159
A Graphic Survey of Street Cross Sectionsp. 163
Narrow Streets Datap. 167
Chapter End Notesp. 171
Other Referencesp. 183
Indexp. 189
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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