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The Unlevel Playing Field,9780252072727

The Unlevel Playing Field

by
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 3/30/2005
Publisher(s): Univ of Illinois Pr
Availability: This title is currently not available.

Summary

This extraordinarily rich collection of primary sources charts the significant, intertwining histories of African Americans and sport. The Unlevel Playing Field contains more than one hundred documents on both pioneering and modern-day athletes, ranging chronologically from a challenge issued by prizefighter Tom Molineaux in the London Times in 1810 to contributions from commentators like Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, James Baldwin, and Eldridge Cleaver, as well as contemporary observers such as Nikki Giovanni, Henry Louis Gates Jr., and bell hooks. Introductions and headnotes by David K. Wiggins and Patrick B. Miller place each document in context, shaping a compelling narrative.David K. Wiggins teaches sport history at George Mason University. He is the author of Glory Bound: Black Athletes in a White America.Patrick B. Miller teaches history at Northeastern Illinois University. He is the editor of The Sporting World of the Modern South.A volume in the series Sport and Society, edited by Benjamin G. Rader and Randy Roberts

Author Biography

David K. Wiggins teaches sport history at George Mason University Patrick B. Miller teaches history at Northeastern Illinois University

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction 1(6)
1 Antebellum Ordeals: Slavery, Sport, and the Prospects of Freedom Introduction 7(24)
1. Tom Molineaux
Black Pioneer in Sport
9(4)
2. Frederick Douglass
"Holiday Times"
13(4)
3. Francis Fedric
"A Corn Shucking"
17(3)
4. Solomon Northup
"Patting Juba"
20(3)
5. Benny Dilliard
"Preachin' and Baptizin"'
23(1)
6. William Green
"Becoming a Race Rider"
24(2)
7. Amos Webber
Reports on Thanksgiving Field Day
26(5)
2 Striving for Success: African American Athletes in the Early Period of Jim Crow, 1865-1915
Introduction
31(3)
A The Problem of Exclusion
34(5)
1. The Color Line in Organized Baseball
34(2)
2. Weldy Wilberforce Walker
"Why Discriminate?"
36(3)
B Health, Recreation, and Sport in the Postbellum Era
39(19)
3. W.E.B. Du Bois
"The Problem of Amusement"
39(4)
4. Samuel Archer and J.B. Watson on Football at Southern Black Colleges
43(3)
5. William Clarence Matthews
"Negro Foot-ball Players on New England Teams"
46(4)
6. Thomas J. Clement
"Athletics in the American Army"
50(2)
7. Sol White
"Managers Troubles"
52(3)
8. "Baseball among the Fairer Sex Coming into Prominence"
55(3)
C Black Athletic Heroes at the Turn of the Century
58(27)
9. Isaac Murphy the Great Lexington Jockey
58(5)
10. Marshall "Major" Taylor Champion Sprint Cyclist
63(3)
11. George Dixon's Long Career in Boxing
66(2)
12. Peter Jackson and the Elusive Heavyweight Championship
68(3)
13. William Henry Lewis: Uplifting the Race
71(3)
14. "Papa Jack": In the Ring and Out
74(3)
15. Booker T. Washington and Jack Johnson: Race Men and Respectability
77(2)
16. W.E.B. Du Bois and Jack Johnson: The Scholar's Pugilist and the Heavyweight Champ as Folk Hero
79(6)
3 Parallel Institutions: Black Sports between the World Wars Introduction 85(58)
A Leisure and Recreation: Some Considerations
88(3)
1. Emmett J. Scott
"Leisure Time and the Colored Citizen"
88(3)
B Baseball behind the Veil of Segregation: Negro Teams and Leagues
91(11)
2. Beauregard F. Moseley
"A Baseball Appeal"
91(1)
3. Andrew "Rube" Foster
"Will Colored Baseball Survive the Acid Test?"
92(1)
4. Chester L. Washington
"Satchel's Back in Town"
93(6)
5. Nat Trammell
"Baseball Classic-East vs. West"
99(3)
C An Array of Venues-and Accomplishments
102(11)
6. The Harlem Rens, "Incomparable Courteers"
102(3)
7. Gerald Norman
"National American Tennis Association Championships"
105(3)
8. J. Elmer Reed on the National Negro Bowling Association
108(2)
9. Frank A. Young
Cum Posey: Athlete and Entrepreneur
110(3)
D Interscholastic and Collegiate Sport: Muscular Assimilationism
113(17)
10. Developing a High School Basketball Tournament
113(2)
11. African American Women Make Their Marks in Sport
115(4)
12. Women's Basketball and the Shape of Things to Come: Bennett College vs. the Philadelphia Tribunes
119(2)
13. "Nation Eyes Lincoln and Howard Game"
121(5)
14. Hildrus A. Poindexter Discusses the Gridiron World: Lincoln, 1922-23
126(4)
E Cultural Critiques
130(13)
15. "The Colored Basketball Referee Finally Arrives"
130(3)
16. "Tuskegee and `Force' Rapped for Tribute to Knute Rockne"
133(2)
17. Wendell Smith
"A Strange Tribe": On the Loyalties of Black Fans
135(2)
18. W.E.B. Du Bois, Allison Davis, and Langston Hughes on the Excesses of Black College Sport
137(6)
4 The Quest for Racial Reform: Affirmation and Protest in the Sporting Realm, 1920's and 1930's
Introduction
143(2)
A The "New Negro" in Sports
145(9)
1. James Weldon Johnson on Sportsmen in Black Manhattan
145(4)
2. Robert Hayden
"Free Fantasia: Tiger Flowers"
149(2)
3. Paris Noir: Eugene Bullard on the Expatriate Experience
151(3)
B Negotiating the Terms of Black Athletic Achievement
154(12)
4. Harry Levette and Herbert Henegan: Two Considerations of the 1932 Olympic Games
154(2)
5. "Black Mercuries": The Meaning of Black Athletic Achievement
156(2)
6. W. Montague Cobb
"Race and Runners"
158(5)
7. Walter White to Jesse Owens on Race Pride and the Nazi Olympics
163(3)
C Reckoning with Joe Louis
166(11)
8. Marcus Garvey
"The American Negro in Sport"
166(3)
9. Richard Wright
"High Tide in Harlem: Joe Louis as a Symbol of Freedom"
169(5)
10. Willis P. Armstrong
"A Toast to Joe Louis"
174(3)
D Denouncing Racial Prejudice
177(9)
11. Concerning the Snubbing of Paul Robeson
177(3)
12. The Economics of Bigotry: New Orleans Bars Blacks, Loses a Track Meet
180(2)
13. Integrationism in Public Recreation: Denver as a Case Study
182(1)
14. Next Bout-The NAACP vs. Jim Crow: Charles Hamilton Houston on the Politics of Sport in Washington, D.C.
183(3)
E Strategies of Appeal
186(19)
15. Edwin Bancroft Henderson
"The Negro Athlete and Race Prejudice"
186(4)
16. Roy Wilkins
"That Old Southern Accent"
190(3)
17. Paul D. Davis
"Students, Teachers Blast Ban against Lacrosse Player": Harvard University and the Color Line
193(3)
18. William A. Brower
"Has Professional Football Closed the Door?"
196(9)
5 African American Athletes and Democratic Principles: Interpreting the Desegregation of Sport, 1940's and 1950's
Introduction
205(2)
A The Meanings of Jackie Robinson
207(15)
1. Walter White
"Jackie Robinson on Trial"
207(3)
2. Sam Lacy
"Campy, Jackie as Dodgers"
210(3)
3. Effa Manley
"Negro Baseball Is at the Crossroads"
213(2)
4. Gerald Early
"American Integration, Black Heroism, and the Meaning of Jackie Robinson"
215(7)
B Sport, Culture, and Community in Black America
222(13)
5. E. Franklin Frazier
"Society: Status without Substance"
222(1)
6. Dan Burley
"The Top Ten of the First Fifty Years"
223(3)
7. Fritz Pollard
"Explains Reasons for Having a Negro Hall of Fame"
226(3)
8. Nelson George on the Harlem Globetrotters
229(6)
C The First Rounds of the Second Reconstruction
235(15)
9. "New Faces in Pro Football"
235(2)
10. "Are There Too Many Negroes in Baseball?"
237(3)
11. To Desegregate the Golf Courses of America
240(2)
12. Rufus Clement
"Racial Integration in the Field of Sports"
242(4)
13. "And They Call This a Democracy": Little League Baseball and the Struggle for Equality
246(1)
14. "Weekend at the Penn Relays"
247(3)
D Up Close and Personal
250(21)
15. Adam Buckley Cohen
The Mugging of Johnny Bright
250(4)
16. Andrew W. Ramsey
"The Skies Refused to Fall": Crispus Attucks High School and Indiana Basketball
254(3)
17. Is Ralph Dupas Negro or White?
257(3)
18. Althea Gibson
"What Now?"
260(3)
19. Alex Haley on Wilma Rudolph
"The Queen Who Earned Her Crown"
263(8)
6 Sport, the Civil Rights Movement, and Black Power, 1960's and 1970's
Introduction
271(2)
A Speaking Out and Hanging In
273(4)
1. "Negro Athletes and Civil Rights"
273(4)
2. Chet Walker
"On the Road in the South, 1960"
277(8)
3. A.S. "Doc" Young
"Rebellion at Cal"
282(3)
B The Politics of Protest: The 1968 Olympic Games
285(11)
4. Harry Edwards
"Mounting the Revolt"
285(4)
5. The Boycott Debate: Tommie Smith on "Why Negroes Should Boycott" the Olympics, and Ralph Boston on "Why They Should Not"
289(7)
C Culture and Dissent: Boxing
296(21)
6. James Baldwin
"The Fight: Patterson vs. Liston" (1963)
296(7)
7. Eldridge Cleaver
"The Muhammad Ali-Patterson Fight"
303(3)
8. Elijah Muhammad Disciplines Muhammad Ali
306(4)
9. "Muhammad Ali Faces the Nation"
310(7)
7 Progress, Protest, and Alienation in the Sports Factory, 1970's and Beyond
Introduction
317(2)
A Challenging the Color Line
319(17)
1. Jesse Jackson on Blacks and the Sports $$$
319(4)
2. Phil Petrie
"The NFL Sacks the Black Quarterback"
323(5)
3. Eddie Robinson on Grambling's First White Player
328(4)
4. Lloyd V. Hackley
"We Need to Educate Our Athletes": Higher Education and Sports
332(4)
B The Limits of Integration
336(43)
5. Marian E. Washington
"Black Women in Sports: Can We Get off the Track?"
336(3)
6. Frank Robinson
"In America's National Pastime ... White Is the Color of the Game off the Field"
339(3)
7. Jim Brown
Racism in Context
342(5)
8. Rafer Johnson
The Decathlete as Community-Builder
347(8)
9. David Aldridge
"A Team's True Colors": Washington Redskins on and off the Field
355(6)
10. David Zang
An Interview with Calvin Hill
361(10)
11. Margo Jefferson on Arthur Ashe: "On the Court, in the World"
371(8)
8 Black Cultural Commentary: Race Relations and Sport at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century
Introduction
379(2)
A School and Society: Athletics and Academics
381(17)
1. Henry Louis Gates Jr.
"Delusions of Grandeur"
381(2)
2. Anita DeFrantz
Overcoming Obstacles
383(4)
3. Welch Suggs
"Left Behind": Title IX and Black Women Athletes
387(6)
4. bell hooks
"Dreams of Conquest"
393(5)
B The Pros
398(23)
5. Jackie Joyner-Kersee, a Woman of Substance
398(3)
6. Michael Eric Dyson
"Be Like Mike? Michael Jordan and the Pedagogy of Desire"
401(6)
7. John Edgar Wideman
"Playing Dennis Rodman"
407(4)
8. Nikki Giovanni
"Iverson's Posse"
411(2)
9. Michael Wilbon on Tiger Woods: "History in Black and White"
413(4)
10. William C. Rhoden
"NFL's Silent Majority Afraid to Force Change"
417(4)
C Dispatches from the Business Page and Some Thoughts for the Future
421(22)
11. Venus Williams's Star Endorsements
421(2)
12. Kenneth Shropshire
"The Next Millennium"
423(5)
13. Gerald Early
"Performance and Reality: Race, Sports, and the Modern World"
428(7)
14. Harry Edwards
"The Decline of the Black Athlete"
435(8)
Conclusion 443(4)
Bibliographic Essay and List 447(32)
Index 479

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